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Table 3 Effect of antenatal care visits on knowledge, attitude and practice scores among pregnant women in rural Kenya, adjusted for covariates

From: Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

Characteristics Health knowledge Nutrition knowledge Preventive attitude score Dietary diversity score
Un-adjusted Adjusted Un-adjusted Adjusted Un-adjusted Adjusted Un-adjusted Adjusted
β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE)
Intercept - 4.66 (0.30) - 2.124 (0.33) - 5.90 (0.38) - 3.65 (0.37)
Age, yrs 0.04 (0.01)*** 0.025 (0.01)** 0.04 (0.01)*** 0.04 (0.01)*** 0.0 (0.01) - -0.01 (0.01) -0.02 (0.01)**
Number of ANC clinic visits
 None Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 <4 visits 0.12 (0.12) 0.35 (0.14)* 0.04 (0.13) -0.17 (0.14) 0.26 (0.15) 0.23 (0.15) -0.04 (0.10) -0.09 (0.10)
 ≥4 visits 0.57 (0.18)** 0.89 (0.21)*** -0.03 (0.20) -0.11 (0.21) 0.27 (0.23) 0.14 (0.22) 0.20 (0.15) 0.26 (0.14)
Gestational age
 1st trimester Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference - Reference -
 2nd trimester -0.21 (0.16) -0.34 (0.17)* 0.29 (0.18) 0.32 (0.17) 0.01 (0.21) - 0.06 (0.13) -
 3rd trimester -0.18 (0.16) -0.52 (0.19)** 0.11 (0.18) 0.31 (0.19) 0.03 (0.20) - 0.01 (0.13) -
Mother’s education level
 Less than primary Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Primary school complete 0.26 (0.13)* 0.26 (0.13)* 0.83 (0.13)*** 0.821 (0.13)** 0.21 (0.16) 0.03 (0.16) 0.21 (0.11)* 0.15 (0.10)
 Above primary school 0.57 (0.14)*** 0.51 (0.14)** 2.26 (0.14)*** 2.132 (0.14)** 0.83 (0.17)*** 0.43 (0.19)* 0.52 (0.11)*** 0.40 (0.12)**
Marital status
 Single Reference Reference Reference - Reference - - -
 Married 0.68 (0.18)** 0.26 (0.20) 0.08 (0.21) - -0.14 (0.23) - - -
 Separated/Divorced -0.38 (0.49) -0.75 (0.48) -0.70 (0.55) - -0.88 (0.62) - - -
Wealth index 1.91 (0.83)* 0.88 (0.88) 4.05 (0.93)*** -0.13 (0.87) 0.98 (1.05) -0.85 (1.09) 4.60 (0.67)*** 3.90 (0.71)***
Agricultural activity and selling agriculture products
 Not involved in agriculture/selling products Reference - Reference - Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Secondary activity, not selling agri products 0.66 (0.29)* - 0.16 (0.32) - 0.38 (0.38) 0.20 (0.36) 0.22 (0.24) 0.20 (0.24)
 Principal activity, not selling agri. products 0.74 (0.23)** - 0.06 (0.25) - -0.13 (0.28) -0.21 (0.28) -0.10 (0.19) 0.16 (0.19)
 Secondary activity and selling products 0.65 (0.26)* - 0.18 (0.28) - 1.1 (0.32)** 0.93 (0.32)** -0.49 (0.21)* -0.24 (0.21)
 Principal activity and selling products 0.44 (0.26) - -0.35 (0.29) - -0.42 (0.32) -0.45 (0.33) -0.45 (0.21)* -0.19 (0.21)
Income generating activities
 Not involved Reference Reference Reference - Reference - Reference Reference
 Involved in one activity 0.26 (0.12)* 0.17 (0.12) 0.02 (0.14) - -0.04 (0.16) - 0.10 (0.10) 0.19 (0.10)
 Involved in two activities 046 (0.17)** 0.37 (0.17)* 0.16 (0.19) - -0.09 (0.21) - 0.51 (0.14)** 0.64 (0.14)***
 Involved in three activities 0.67 (0.47) 0.32 (0.46) 1.00 (0.53) - -0.28 (0.60) - 0.84 (0.39)* 0.77 (0.37)*
Radio use
 Do not listen Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference - Reference Reference
Irregularly -0.31 (0.24) -0.36 (0.24) -0.22 (0.27) -0.25 (0.24) 0.19 (0.30) - 0.77 (0.20)*** 0.58 (0.20)*
 At least once per week -0.00 (0.23) -0.07 (0.23) -0.31 (0.26) -0.21 (0.23) 0.35 (0.30) - 0.33 (0.19) 0.33 (0.19)
 Everyday 0.42 (0.19)* 0.19 (0.19) 0.45 (0.21)* 0.21 (0.19) 0.02 (0.24) - 0.65 (0.15)*** 0.46 (0.16)*
Nutrition knowledge - - - - 0.17 (0.04)*** 0.09 (0.04)*   
Health knowledge - - - - 0.18 (0.04)*** 0.14 (0.04)** -0.02 (0.03) -0.05 (0.03)
Attitude score - - - - - - 0.01 (0.02) -
  1. §Unadjusted model signify the bivariate association between dependent and independent variables alone. Whereas, adjusted analysis is a reduces model taking into account all covariates that showed a significant association.
  2. 1 n = 23 observations excluded in the analysis due to missing values in ANC attendance (n = 15), gestational age (n = 7), and maternal education (n = 1); R2 = 0.08.
  3. 2 n = 23 excluded from analysis due to missing values in ANC attendance (n = 15), gestational age (n = 7), and maternal education (n = 1); R2 = 0.26.
  4. 3 n = 24 values not used in regression analysis due to missing values in ANC attendance (n = 15), gestational age (n = 7), maternal education (n = 1), and health knowledge score (n = 1); R2 = 0.10.
  5. 4 n = 24 observations excluded in the analysis due to missing values in ANC attendance (n = 15), gestational age (n = 7), maternal education (n = 1), and health knowledge score (n = 1); R2 = 0.12.
  6. *** p significant at a two-sided alpha of <0.0001; **p-value significant at a two-sided alpha of <0.01; *p-value significant at a two-sided alpha of <0.05.