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Table 2 Characteristics of women who experience poor mental health outcomes at 4 months postpartum

From: Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

Independent variable Depression (EPDS ≥ 10) n(%) Anxiety (SSAI ≥ 40) n(%) High stress n(%) Low parenting morale n(%)
  Yes (n = 177) No (n = 1170) Yes (n = 206) No (n = 1125) Yes (n = 229) No (n = 1115) Yes (n = 265) No (n = 1074)
Maternal Age         
<25 yrs 19(11.0)* 89(7.7) 21(10.4) 85(7.7) 19(11.0) 80(7.3) 21(8.0) 87(8.2)
25–34 yrs 110(63.6) 863(74.6) 138(68.7) 827(74.4) 110(63.6) 826(75.2) 186(71.0) 779(73.6)
35+ yrs 44(25.4) 203(17.6) 42(20.9) 199(17.9) 44(25.4) 193(17.6) 55(21.0) 192(18.1)
Education         
High school or less 24(13.6) 111(9.6) 22(10.7) 114(10.2) 38(16.7)* 100(9.0) 31(11.7) 106(9.9)
Completed degree or some post-Secondary 152(86.4) 1051(90.4) 183(89.3) 1003(89.8) 190(83.3)* 1007(91.0) 233(88.3) 960(90.1)
Household Income         
<60,000 51(29.7)* 180(160) 59(29.8)* 170(15.7) 67(30.6)* 165(15.3) 62(24.1)* 170(16.5)
60,000+ 121(70.3)* 944(84.0) 139(70.2)* 912(84.3) 152(69.4)* 912(84.7) 195(75.9)* 861(83.5)
Marital Status         
Married/common-law 159(90.3)* 1106(95.3) 184(90.2)* 1064(93.5) 208(91.2) 1053(93.3) 246(93.2) 1009(94.8)
Other 17(9.7)* 54(4.7) 20(9.8)* 52(4.7) 20(8.8) 52(4.7) 18(6.8) 55(5.2)
Ethnic Origin         
White/Caucasian 125(71.0) 894(77.1) 150(73.5) 860(77.1) 166(72.8) 850(76.9) 210(79.5) 802(75.4)
Other 51(29.0) 266(22.9) 54(26.5) 256(22.9) 62(27.2) 255(23.1) 54(20.5) 262(24.6)
Born in Canada         
Yes 128(72.7) 898(77.2) 159(77.6) 861(77.0) 170(74.6) 853(77.0) 205(77.7) 814(76.3)
No 48(27.3) 265(22.8) 26(22.4) 257(23.0) 58(25.4) 255(23.0) 59(22.3) 253(23.7)
History of Mental Health Problems 113(64.6)* 337(29.0)* 127(62.3)* 317(28.3)* 129(56.8)* 320(28.9)* 149(56.7)* 299(28.0)*
History of Alcohol or Drug Abuse 11(6.3) 32(2.7) 11(5.4) 33(2.9) 13(5.7) 30(2.7) 15(5.7) 29(2.7)
Low Optimism (below 20 th percentile of distribution) 43(28.7)* 121(12.7)* 57(33.7)* 106(11.5)* 63(33.0)* 102(11.2)* 62(27.1)* 101(11.6)*
Low Social Support 75(43.4)* 115(10.0)* 78(39.2)* 110(9.9)* 91(41.0)* 100(9.1)* 96(37.4)* 93(8.8)*
Low Energy 75(42.6)* 142(12.1)* 91(44.0)* 126(11.2)* 93(40.8)* 123(11.0)* 118(44.7)* 99(9.2)*
  1. *significant at p < 0.01.