Skip to main content

Table 1 Definition of stages and phases of labour and diagnostic criteria for dystocia for current sub-study [810].

From: A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

Stage of labour Definition of stages and phases Diagnostic criteria for dystocia
First stage From onset of regular contractions leading to cervical dilatation  
Latent phase Cervix dilatation 0 - 3.9 cm Not given in this phase
Active phase Cervix dilatation ≥ 4 cm < 2 cm assessed over four hours
Second stage From full dilatation of cervix until the baby is borne  
Descending phase From full dilatation of cervix to strong and irresistible urge to push No descending ≥ 2 hours or ≥ 3 hours if epidural was administrated
Expulsive phase Strong and irresistible pushing during the major part of the contractions No progress ≥ 1 hour