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Table 1 Summary of measures, results, and quality scores of articles included in systematic review

From: Does prenatal micronutrient supplementation improve children's mental development? A systematic review

Reference Sample Outcomes Measures Intervention/Duration Results Quality Score
Caulfield et al. [13] 184 children (Peru) 1,3
(At 4-5 yrs)
Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence Zinc + folic acid + iron vs. folic acid + iron only
10-14 weeks gestation to birth
1,3 15/21
    Goodenough & Harris Draw-a-Person Test    
    Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales    
    Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire    
Dunstan et al. [31] 72 children (Australia) 1,2,3
(At 34 mo)
Griffiths Mental Development Scale Fish oil vs. olive oil
20 weeks gestation to birth
1,3
+ 2
16/21
    Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test    
    Child Behavior Checklist    
Hamadani et al. [22] 168 children (Bangladesh) 1,2,3
(At 39 mo)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development Zinc vs. placebo
16 weeks gestation to birth
- 1,2
3
14/21
    Wolke's Behaviour Rating Scale (modified)    
Helland et al. [16] 84 children (Norway) 1
(At 4 yrs)
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Cod liver oil vs. corn oil
18 weeks gestation to three months post-birth
+ 1 12/21
Helland et al. [15] 143 children (Norway) 1
(At 7 yrs)
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Cod liver oil vs. corn oil
18 weeks gestation to three months post-birth
1 15/21
Innis & Friesen [19] 135 infants (British Columbia) 4
(At 60 d)
Teller Acuity Card Procedure DHA vs. corn/soybean oil
16 weeks gestation to birth
4 16/21
Joos et al. [25] 99 infants
(rural Taiwan)
1,2
(At 250 d)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development HCHP drink + MVM vs. LCLP drink + MVM
Preconception to lactation
1
+ 2
15/21
Judge et al. [18] 30 infants (Connecticut) 4
(At 4 and 6 mo)
Teller Acuity Card Procedure DHA vs. corn oil cereal bar
24 weeks gestation to birth
+ 4 at 4 months
4 at 6 months
14/21
Judge et al. [17] 29 infants (Connecticut) 1
(At 9 mo)
Willatts' Infant Planning Testa DHA vs. corn oil cereal bar
24 weeks gestation to birth
+ 1a
1b
12/21
    Fagan Test of Intelligenceb    
Li et al. [26] 1305 infants
(rural China)
1,2
(At 3,6,12 mo)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development MVM vs. folic acid + iron vs. folic acid alone
14 weeks gestation to birth
+ 1 at 12 months
1 at 3 and 6 months
2
19/21
Malcolm et al. [20] 55 infants (Scotland) 4
(At 50 and 66 wk)
Visual evoked potential Fish oil vs. sunflower oil
15 weeks gestation to birth
4 15/21
McGrath et al. [27] 327 children born to HIV-infected mothers (Tanzania) 1,2
(At 6, 12 and 18 mo)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development Vitamin A vs. MVM-A vs. MVM+A vs. placebo
<28 weeks gestation to 18 months post-birth
1
+ 2 (MVMs only)
13/21
Parsons et al. [21] 264 children (Australia) 3
(At 7.5 yrs)
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Iron vs. placebo
20 weeks gestation to birth
3 17/21
    Short Temperament Scale for Children    
Schmidt et al. [28] 276 infants
(rural Indonesia)
1,2
(At 6 and 12 mo)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development Iron + folic acid + vitamin A vs. iron + folic acid vs. LD iron + LD folic acid
20 weeks gestation to birth
1, 2 14/21
Tamura et al. [29] 355 children (Alabama) 1,2,4,5
(At 5.3 yrs)
Differential Ability Scales Zinc vs. placebo
20 weeks gestation to birth
1,2,4,5 15/21
    Wide Range Achievement Test    
    Knox Cube test    
    Gross Motor Scale    
    Grooved Pegboard test    
    Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test    
    Visual Sequential Memory    
    Auditory Sequential Memory    
Tofail et al. [23] 249 infants (Bangladesh) 1,2,3
(At 10 mo)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development Fish oil vs. soy oil
25 weeks gestation to birth
1,2,3 15/21
    Wolke's Behaviour Rating Scale    
Tofail et al. [24] 2116 infants (Bangladesh) 1,2
(At 7 mo)
Willatts' Infant Planning Test Food packets + MVM vs. food packets + iron + folic acid (Fe60) vs. food packets + LD iron + folic acid (Fe30)
<30 weeks gestation to birth
1,2 17/21
    Bayley Scales of Infant Development - Psychomotor Developmental Index    
Zhou et al. [30] 302 children (Australia) 1,3
(At 4 yrs)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Iron vs. placebo
20 weeks gestation to birth
1,3 17/21
  1. 1 = cognitive development
  2. 2 = motor development
  3. 3 = behavioral development
  4. 4 = visual development
  5. 5 = auditory development
  6. = no effect of nutrient(s) on development
  7. + = positive effect of nutrient(s) on development
  8. - = negative effect of nutrient(s) on development
  9. MVM = multivitamin-mineral
  10. HCHP = high calorie, high protein
  11. LCLP = low calorie, low protein
  12. MVM-A = multivitamin-mineral without vitamin A
  13. MVM+A = multivitamin-mineral with vitamin A
  14. LD = lower dosage