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Table 1 List of interventions

From: Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7): evidence for effectiveness of interventions

Selected Interventions Selected Interventions
Group 1: Interventions given before pregnancy Group 5: Intrapartum interventions to prevent stillbirth
X Birth spacing X Birth preparedness
X Periconceptional folate X Use of partogram
X Indoor air pollution control X Fetal movement monitoring
  Prevention of female genital mutilation X Emergency obstetric care
   X Cesarean section for breech presentation
Group 2: Interventions given during pregnancy X Elective induction of labor for post-term delivery
X Smoking cessation programs X Elective induction of term PROM
X Balanced protein energy supplementation X Home delivery vs. facility delivery
X Multiple micronutrient supplementation   Instrumental deliveries (forceps versus vacuum)
X Iron and folate supplementation   Amnioinfusion
X Zinc supplementation   Cervical ripening and induction of labor with diff erent
X Magnesium sulfate supplementation   prostaglandins
X Calcium supplementation   COX inhibitors for preterm labor
X Supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids   Magnesium sulphate for treatment of preeclampsia/eclampsia or
X Cardiotocographic monitoring   preterm labor
X Doppler and late ultrasound monitoring   Maternal hyperoxygenation
  Anti-platelet agents in pregnancy, including aspirin   
  Anti-malarials Group 6: Antepartum and intrapartum interventions to improve preterm survival
  Anti-oxidants X Prophylactic corticosteroid therapy in preterm labor
  Vitamin A/Beta-Carotene supplementation X Antibiotics for PROM/PPROM
   X Antibiotics for preterm labor with intact membranes
Group 3: Interventions for pregnancy infections X Delayed cord clamping
X Screening and treatment of syphilis   Vitamin A to the mother
X Intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria   
X Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) Group 7: Postnatal interventions to improve preterm survival
X Screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria X Neonatal resuscitation
X Screening and treatment of bacterial vaginosis X Vitamin A supplementation
X Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV X Vitamin K supplementation
X Anti-helminthic treatment X Zinc supplementation
X Screening and treatment of periodontal disease X Selenium supplementation
   X Chlorhexidine treatment on the cord
Group 4: Interventions for pregnancies with high-risks of PTB or SB X Case management of neonatal sepsis and pneumonia
X Progesterone X Kangaroo mother care (KMC)
X Cervical cerclage X Early breastfeeding
X Multivitamins for HIV+ women X Thermal care
  Amniotic fluid volume assessment X Application of continued distending pressure or CPAP to the
  Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring with cardiotocography   lungs for RDS
  Cervical pessaries to prevent preterm birth X Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)
  Fetal biophysical test scoring X Surfactant therapy for RDS
  Home versus hospital monitoring for high-risk pregnancies   Emollient therapy
  In-hospital fetal surveillance unit   Hand washing
  Intrapartum cardiotocography and pulse oximetry   Prophylaxis of eye infection
  Management of gestational diabetes mellitus   Use of Appropriate Low-cost Technology (incubators, techniques
  Non stress testing or vibroacoustic stimulation   for minimally invasive intravenous access, protection against the
  Use of the partograph   excessive use of oxygen)
  Fetal movement monitoring   
  Heparin in pregnancy   
  Management of intrahepatic cholestasis   
  Plasma exchange   
  Pregnancy risk screening   
  Ultrasound scanning   
  1. X indicates interventions described in the text. Interventions without the X were reviewed but not included due to one or more of the following reasons: (a) the available evidence was very limited; (b) there was no evidence of an impact; (c) the intervention requires high technology; (d) the intervention is seldom used; (e) the intervention was applicable to a small subgroup of pregnant women.