Skip to main content

Table 3 Small-for-gestational-age resultsa for daily bottled, cold tap, total tap, and total water intake

From: The relationship between water intake and foetal growth and preterm delivery in a prospective cohort study

  Follow-up data Average of baseline
and follow-up data
Exposure n (%) Unadjusted RR (95% CI) Adjusted RR (95% CI)b Adjusted RR (95% CI)b
Bottled water    
   None 448 (26%) 1 1 1
   Any 1258 (74%) 1.1 (0.7, 1.7) 0.9 (0.5, 1.4) 1.4 (0.6, 3.0)
Cold tap water (ounces)c   
   0-27 403 (24%) 1 1 1
   > 27-53 439 (26%) 0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 1.2 (0.6, 2.3) 1.1 (0.6, 2.2)
   > 53-91 429 (25%) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.4 (0.7, 2.6)
   > 91 439 (26%) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.9 (0.5, 1.9) 1.1 (0.5, 2.1)
Per 20 ounce 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
Total tap water (ounces)c   
   0-30 423 (25%) 1 1 1
   > 30-61 426 (25%) 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 1.2 (0.6, 2.2)
   > 61-96 476 (28%) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.8 (0.5, 1.6) 1.3 (0.7, 2.6)
   > 96 380 (22%) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.9 (0.5, 1.9) 1.1 (0.6, 2.2)
Per 20 ounce 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
Total water (ounces) c    
   0-51 434 (25%) 1 1 1
   > 51-78 418 (25%) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.8 (0.4, 1.4) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6)
   > 78-114 424 (25%) 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 0.5 (0.2, 1.0)
   > 114 427 (25%) 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 1.0 (0.6, 1.8)
Per 20 ounce 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
  1. aTerm SGA models restricted to infants born to non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic women
  2. bAdjusted for race, education level, annual household income, smoking, pre-pregnancy BMI, vitamin use, parity, employed during last 4 months, infant gender, and study site
  3. cCategorical exposure cutpoints for average data results were slightly higher than the follow-up data
  4. BMI= body mass index; RR= risk ratio