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Table 4 Barriers and Facilitators in Humanized Childbirth

From: Facilitators and barriers in the humanization of childbirth practice in Japan

Characteristics Presence of characteristic: + Absence of characteristic:- 1st level hospital 2nd level hospitals 3th level hospitals 4th level hospitals Birthing home
   1. Rule and Regulation      
- Prevention from having a companion in postpartum - - + + -
- Prevention from having a companion in operation room - + + + NA
- Banning of children from the mother's rooms + + + +/- -
- The restriction in the number of companions allowed during labor or delivery + + + + -
- Conditional acceptance of the father as a companion + + + + +
   2. Physical Structure      
- Common Labour and delivery room + - - +/- -
- Common postpartum room + + + + -
   3. Contingence Factor      
  + + + + NA
- University-affiliated hospitals      
- The lack of midwifery authority + + + + +
  + + + + +
- Mal practice litigation      
  + + + + NA
- Physicians' training and medical skill + + + + -
- Overcharge of work for care providers + + + + -
- The workplace demand on Japanese men General condition General condition General condition General condition General condition
   4. Individual Factors      
- Lack of decision-making by women in hospitals + + + + -
Facilitators in Humanized birth
   1. Rules and Regulation      
- Preventing unnecessary medical intervention      
- Natural methods for relieving pain + + + + +
- Getting the women's consent + + + + +
- Long stay in birth setting + + + + +
  + + + + +
   2. Physical Structure      
- LDR room and other facilities - + + +/- +
   3. Contingence Factor      
- Midwifery system + + + + +
- Private and public health care system + + + + +
   4. Individual Factors      
- Women's culture, values and beliefs in natural birth + + + + +