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Table 3 Actual practice in four hospitals in China. Procedures are categorised into "avoid as routine" or "encourage as routine" through reference to research evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews

From: Evidence-based obstetrics in four hospitals in China: An observational study to explore clinical practice, women's preferences and provider's views

  Specialist City MCH District County Total
Vaginal deliveries (women) 75 82 41 105 303
Avoid as routine      
   Pubic shaving (%) 0 (0) 82 (100) 39 (95) 98 (93) 219 (72)
   Enemas 1 (1) 1 (1) 22 (54) 0 (0) 24 (8)
   Rectal examination 71 (95) 0 (0) 39 (95) 103 (98) 213 (70)
   Supine position 75 (100) 82 (100) 41 (100) 102 (97) 300 (99)
   Electronic FHR 75 (100) 76 (93) 37 (90) 1 (1) 189 (62)
   monitoring      
   Episiotomy 70 (93) 74 (90) 36 (88) 68 (65) 248 (82)
Encourage as routine      
   Mobility during labour 27 (36) 19 (23) 23 (56) 8 (8) 77 (25)
   Companionship during 6 (8) 30 (36) 38 (93) 8 (8) 82 (27)
   labour