Spirito 1989 
Rhode Island, USA. Diabetes in Pregnancy Program. 68 GDM and 50 controls
45 min semi structured interview and self completed Profile of Mood States-Bipolar Form
No significant difference in emotional state of women with GDM or controls.
Lawson, 1994 
Recently diagnosed GDM in Kentucky, USA
Interviews: once prenatally and once post partum
Most women experienced fear, anxiety and depression following diagnosis. Diet posed multiple difficulties and challenges. Respondents reported experimenting with different foods and primary concern being fetal wellbeing.
Sjogren 1994 
Sweden. 113 post partum women who had GDM and 226 controls
Self completed questionnaire after pregnancy
Women with GDM reported poorer well-being, increased worry, decreased psychic health and energy. No difference in breast-feeding rates between groups.
Langer 1994 
San Antionio, Tx USA. 206 GDM and 95 controls in a low socioeconomic area.
Self administered Profile of Mood States- Bipolar Form
GDM does not adversely contribute to emotional state.
Rumbold 2002 
Adelaide Australia. Women surveyed prior to being screened for GDM, after the screening test when results were known and around 36 weeks gestation. 25 GDM, 184 controls
Self-administered questionnaire Spielberger State-Trait anxiety inventory, Edinburgh Post Natal Depression score and SF-36 health status.
No differences in anxiety or depression scores were found after screening or later in pregnancy between those screening positive or negative. Women screening negative had better health perceptions than those screening positive, however differences not evident later in pregnancy.
Hjelm 2005 
Specialist diabetes in pregnancy clinic in Lund Sweden, 13 women born in Sweden and 14 in Middle East
Semi structured interviews
Negative feelings and worries when informed about diagnosis. All women concerned about health of baby. Women from Middle East knew less about causes and consequences of GDM
Evans 2005 
Diabetic outpatient clinic, Western Canada
In depth interviews, twice in pregnancy and once 6-8 weeks postpartum.
Main theme of ‘living a controlled pregnancy’. Women acknowledged their role in controlling their diabetes for the sake of their baby, but found it very difficult at times. Although they recognised the adverse effects, many perceived the experience as beneficial. Their knowledge about pregnancy, body and diet perceived as empowering.
Hjelm, 2008 
A specialist diabetes clinic and specialist midwifery clinic in Lund, Sweden
Semi structured interviews
Negative feelings around diagnosis. Recommended that more information be provided immediately after diagnosis of GDM and continually reinforced.
Daniells 2003 
Wollongong, Australia.56 women with GDM and 50 controls.
Self-completed questionnaire Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) and Speilberger state-trait anxiety inventory administered at diagnosis, 36 weeks and 6 weeks post partum.
Few differences in mental health and anxiety measures between the groups. At time of diagnosis GDM women reported significantly greater psychological distress on the MHI-5 and state anxiety scores. These scores similar by 36 weeks and postpartum.
Collier 2011 
Atlanta, USA. Women who had had a pregnancy affected by GDM (54 women) or pre-existing DM (35 women) in the last 4 years
Barriers to management of GDM included financial, access to care, barriers to physical activity and diet, information barriers. Participants reported feeling alone and overwhelmed by diabetes requirements. Lack of knowledge in GDM group about effects on long term health
Bandyopadhyay 2011 
Melbourne, Australia. 17 immigrant women from South Asia
In depth interviews
Fear, shock and distress with diagnosis. Difficulties adapting to dietary advice as too general. Concern that restricted diet would affect baby’s growth. Restriction of key traditional foods. Paramount concerns for the baby. Fear of injecting insulin