Skip to main content

Pregnancy and childbirth in low and middle income countries

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth in the developing world.

Page 1 of 20

  1. Successful scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has minimized infant HIV acquisition, and over 1 million infants are born HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), with an increasing proportion al...

    Authors: Dorothy C. Nyemba, Emma Kalk, Hlengiwe P. Madlala, Thokozile R. Malaba, Amy L. Slogrove, Mary-Ann Davies, Andrew Boulle, Landon Myer and Kathleen M. Powis

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Yoga can reduce the risk of preterm delivery, cesarean section (CS), and fetal death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Yoga on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes.

    Authors: Leili Yekefallah, Peyman Namdar, Leila Dehghankar, Fereshteh Golestaneh, Soghra Taheri and Frahnaz Mohammadkhaniha

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:351

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Globally, infant mortality has declined considerably but has remained unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa, especially Nigeria where infant mortality rate is 67/1000 live births. To facilitate infant mortal...

    Authors: Mobolaji Modinat Salawu, Rotimi Felix Afolabi, Babatunde Makinde Gbadebo, Adetokunbo Taophic Salawu, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe and Ayo Stephen Adebowale

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:345

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. The aim of this study was to explore and measure the social and economic consequences of the costs of obstetric and neonatal care in Lubumbashi, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Authors: Musau Nkola Angèle, Ntambue Mukengeshayi Abel, Omewatu Mungomba Jacques, Mundongo Tshamba Henri and Malonga Kaj Françoise

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. Having a companion of choice throughout childbirth is an important component of good quality and respectful maternity care for women and has become standard in many countries. However, there are only a few exa...

    Authors: Paul Chaote, Nguke Mwakatundu, Sunday Dominico, Alex Mputa, Agnes Mbanza, Magdalena Metta, Samantha Lobis, Michelle Dynes, Selemani Mbuyita, Shanon McNab, Karen Schmidt and Florina Serbanescu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. Vacuum-assisted birth is not widely practiced in Tanzania but efforts to re-introduce the procedure suggest some success. Few studies have targeted childbirth attendants to learn how their perceptions of and t...

    Authors: Sunday Dominico, Mkambu Kasanga, Nguke Mwakatundu, Paul Chaote, Samantha Lobis and Patricia E. Bailey

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. India has the highest number of stillbirths and the highest neonatal death rate in the world. In the context of its pronatalist society, women who experience perinatal loss often encounter significant social r...

    Authors: Lisa Roberts, Solomon J. Renati, Shreeletha Solomon and Susanne Montgomery

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:292

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Despite 15–17 millions of annual births in China, there is a paucity of information on prevalence and outcome of preterm birth. We characterized the outcome of preterm births and hospitalized preterm infants b...

    Authors: Xiaojing Guo, Xiaoqiong Li, Tingting Qi, Zhaojun Pan, Xiaoqin Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Dong, Hongni Yue and Bo Sun

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:291

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:373

  9. Research suggests that women’s experience of antenatal care is an important component of high-quality antenatal care. Person-centered antenatal care (PCANC) reflects care that is both respectful of, and respon...

    Authors: Phoebe Miller, Patience A. Afulani, Sabine Musange, Felix Sayingoza and Dilys Walker

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:290

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. In most of the sub-Sahara African countries, use of herbal medications is widely practiced during pregnancy or delivery for various reasons despite uncertainties on their pharmacological profiles. Use of unreg...

    Authors: Anna Tengia-Kessy and George Chombe Msalale

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:270

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a significant contributor to the high maternal mortality rate in Indonesia. At the moment, limited guidelines are available to assist primary care providers in man...

    Authors: Fitriana Murriya Ekawati, Sharon Licqurish, Jane Gunn, Shaun Brennecke and Phyllis Lau

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:269

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the main causes of medical complication of pregnancy and is the main cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. It is one of the top causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. Also ...

    Authors: Awol Yemane, Hale Teka, Sumeya Ahmed, Haftom Temesgen and Elizabeth Langen

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health problem both in developed and developing countries with huge consequences to maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. However, there is limited evidence on the prev...

    Authors: Misganaw Gebrie Worku, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Yigizie Yeshaw

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:253

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Monochorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies are rare. Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in monochorionic triplet pregnancies is extremely rare, and it is associated with high perinatal morbidity and m...

    Authors: Guiqiong Huang, Hua Liao, Qing Hu, Xiaodong Wang and Haiyan Yu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:245

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  15. Induction of labor is an artificial initiation of uterine contractions after fetal viability with the aim of vaginal delivery prior to the onset of spontaneous labor. Prevalence of induction of labor is increa...

    Authors: Tibeb Zena Debele, Endeshaw Admassu Cherkos, Marta Berta Badi, Kiber Temesgen Anteneh, Fitsum Wolde Demssie, Abdella Amano Abdo and Muhabaw Shumye Mihret

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Emergency cesarean section is a commonly performed surgical procedure in pregnant women with life-threatening conditions of the mother and/or fetus. According to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologis...

    Authors: Tebabere Moltot Kitaw, Simachew Kassa Limenh, Fantahun Alemnew Chekole, Simegnew Asmer Getie, Belete Negese Gemeda and Abayneh Shewangzaw Engda

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Most post-licensure vaccine pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are passive reporting systems. These have limited utility for maternal immunization pharmacovigilance in LMIC settings ...

    Authors: Mabel Berrueta, Agustin Ciapponi, Ariel Bardach, Federico Rodriguez Cairoli, Fabricio J. Castellano, Xu Xiong, Andy Stergachis, Sabra Zaraa, Ajoke Sobanjo-ter Meulen and Pierre Buekens

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. Antenatal care (ANC) provides an opportunity to prevent, identify and intervene maternal health problems. Maternal near miss (MNM), as an indicator of maternal health, is increasingly gaining global attention ...

    Authors: Tayue Tateke Kebede, Wanzahun Godana, Mesfin Mamo Utaile and Yemisirach Berhanu Sebsibe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Stillbirth is defined as fetal loss in pregnancy beyond 28 weeks by WHO. In this study, a machine-learning based method is proposed to predict stillbirth from livebirth and discriminate stillbirth before and d...

    Authors: Toktam Khatibi, Elham Hanifi, Mohammad Mehdi Sepehri and Leila Allahqoli

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  20. In November 2016, the WHO four-visit focused antenatal care (FANC) model adopted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was reverted to eight contacts or more as a response to reducing the global perinatal and maternal d...

    Authors: Yusuf Olushola Kareem, Imran Oludare Morhason-Bello, Funmilola M. OlaOlorun and Sanni Yaya

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Despite the growing global application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in maternal and child health, contextual factors, and mechanisms by which interventional outcomes are generated, have not been subje...

    Authors: Eveline M. Kabongo, Ferdinand C. Mukumbang, Peter Delobelle and Edward Nicol

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Globally, 4 million infants die in their first 4weeks of life every year; above 8 million infants died before their first year of birthday, and nearly 10 million children died before their 5th birthday. Majori...

    Authors: Mesfin Wudu Kassaw, Ayele Mamo Abebe, Biruk Beletew Abate, Seteamlak Adane Masresha, Ayelign Mengesha Kassie and Molalign Aligaz Adisu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of poor mental health and intimate partner violence (IPV). Mental health disorders have been consistently associated with suboptimal HIV-related outcomes. Little is ...

    Authors: Angela M. Parcesepe, Evette Cordoba, John A. Gallis, Jennifer Headley, Berenger Tchatchou, John Hembling, Claudian Soffo and Joy Noel Baumgartner

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Hospital-based kangaroo mother care can help reduce preventable newborn deaths and has been recommended by the World Health Organization in the care of low birthweight babies weighing 2000 g or less. However, ...

    Authors: Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Tamanda Hiwa, Kelly Pickerill, Marianne Vidler, Queen Dube, David Goldfarb, Alinane Linda Nyondo-Mipando and Kondwani Kawaza

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound is essential in making decisions on the time and mode of delivery. There are many proposed formulas for fetal weight estimation such as Hadlock 1, Hadlock 2, H...

    Authors: Senai Goitom Sereke, Richard Okello Omara, Felix Bongomin, Sarah Nakubulwa and Harriet Nalubega Kisembo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. It is challenging to decrease neonatal mortality in middle-income countries, where perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of death. This study aims to analyze the annual trend of neonatal mortality with peri...

    Authors: Mandira D. Kawakami, Adriana Sanudo, Mônica L. P. Teixeira, Solange Andreoni, Josiane Q. X. de Castro, Bernadette Waldvogel, Ruth Guinsburg and Maria Fernanda de Almeida

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women contribute about 25% of all infections and are among the most frequent clinical bacterial infections. Pregnancy changes in women that include anatomical, physi...

    Authors: Bahati Johnson, Bawakanya Mayanja Stephen, Ngonzi Joseph, Owaraganise Asiphas, Kayondo Musa and Kabanda Taseera

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is transmitted from mother to child which can be prevented via birth dose vaccine combined with three follow up hepatitis B vaccines, hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG), and maternal an...

    Authors: Marieke Bierhoff, Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Marcus J. Rijken, Kanlaya Sriprawa, Pachinee Kobphan, Francois N. Nosten, Michèle van Vugt, Rose McGready and Angela Devine

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Focused antenatal care is directed at sustaining maternal health and improving fetal wellbeing to ensure birth of a healthy neonate. Failure to implement focused antenatal care can result in inability to reduc...

    Authors: Asressie Molla Tessema, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Solomon Mekonnen, Kassahun Alemu and Zemene Tigabu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Inasmuch as induced abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths constitute common adverse pregnancy outcomes contributing to poor maternal health, there is paucity of literature about these in Ghana. We investigat...

    Authors: Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Eugene Budu, Freda Bonsu and Bupe Mwamba

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) are increasingly used to improve prematurity-related neonatal outcome. A recognized and common adverse effect from administration of antenatal corticosteroid is maternal hypergl...

    Authors: Jesrine Gek Shan Hong, Peng Chiong Tan, Maherah Kamarudin and Siti Zawiah Omar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. In many low to middle income countries, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) play various roles (e.g., provision of health education, referral to hospitals, and delivery support) that can potentially improve wo...

    Authors: Yoko Shimpuku, Frida E. Madeni, Kana Shimoda, Satoe Miura and Beatrice Mwilike

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:137

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The Gambia is a male-dominant society in which the cultural norms empower husbands to decide when and where their wives seek care, yet they are not always involved in maternal health care services. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Haddy Tunkara- Bah, Florence O. Adeyemo and Friday E. Okonofua

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Maternal mortality remains a pressing concern across Sub-Sahara Africa. The ‘Three Delays Model’ suggests that maternal deaths are a consequence of delays in: seeking care, reaching medical care and receiving ...

    Authors: Faye Forbes, Karen Wynter, Berihun M. Zeleke and Jane Fisher

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Neonatal near miss is a neonate who nearly died but survived from a severe complication occurred during pregnancy, birth or within 0–28 days of extra-uterine life. However, there is no available data that quan...

    Authors: Anteneh Fikrie Tekola, Genet Baye, Elias Amaje and Kebede Tefera

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Iodine deficiency (ID) is a global public health problem and its impact is more pronounced in low-income countries. During pregnancy, iodine requirement is known to elevate sharply, making pregnant women, espe...

    Authors: Robel Hussen kabthymer, Mohammed Feyisso Shaka, Getnet Melaku Ayele and Bereket Geze malako

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The third Sustainable Development Goal for 2030 development agenda aims to reduce maternal and newborn deaths. Pregnant women’s understanding of danger signs is an important factor in seeking timely care durin...

    Authors: Saran Tenzin Tamang, Thinley Dorji, Sonam Yoezer, Thinley Phuntsho and Phurb Dorji

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Maternal mortality is a public health issue, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region most affected worldwide by maternal mortality, and preeclampsia is o...

    Authors: Oleg Iris Hounkpatin, Salimanou Ariyoh Amidou, Yessito Corine Houehanou, Philippe Lacroix, Pierre Marie Preux, Dismand Stephan Houinato and Holy Bezanahary

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Mens’attendance with their pregnant partners at facility-based antenatal care (ANC) visits is important for maternal and child health and gender equality yet remains uncommon in parts of rural Tanzania. This s...

    Authors: Maendeleo Boniphace, Dismas Matovelo, Rose Laisser, Hadija Swai, Victoria Yohani, Sylvia Tinka, Lusako Mwaikasu, Hannah Mercader, Jennifer L. Brenner and Jennifer Mitchell

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:93

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. The intrapartum period is a time of high mortality risk for newborns and mothers. Numerous interventions exist to minimize risk during this period. Data on intervention coverage are needed for health system im...

    Authors: Emily D. Carter, Karen T. Chang, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. LeClerq, Melinda K. Munos and Joanne Katz

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Maternal mortality can be prevented in low-income settings through early health care seeking during maternity complications. While health system reforms in India prioritised institutional deliveries, inadequat...

    Authors: Danish Ahmad, Itismita Mohanty, Avishek Hazra and Theo Niyonsenga

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Childbirth is a complex process, and checklists are useful tools to remember steps of such complex processes. The World Health Organization safe childbirth checklist is a tool used to improve the quality of care ...

    Authors: Hailemariam Segni Abawollo, Zergu Tafesse Tsegaye, Binyam Fekadu Desta, Tsega Teferi Mamo, Haregewoin Getachew Mamo, Zebyderu Tesfay Mehari, Zenawork Kassa Gebremedhin and Ismael Ali Beshir

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. COVID-19 caused some worries among pregnant women. Worries during pregnancy can affect women’s well-being. We investigated worry and well-being and associated factors among pregnant women during the COVID-19 p...

    Authors: Forough Mortazavi, Maryam Mehrabadi and Roya KiaeeTabar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Cesarean section (CS) is a rising public health issue globally, and is particularly serious in China. Numerous studies have suggested that gestational weight gain (GWG) control may be an effective way to reduc...

    Authors: Lujiao Huang, Ju Zhang, Hong Sun, Hongli Dong, Run Li, Congjie Cai, Yan Gao, Cheng Wu, Xi Lan and Guo Zeng

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Referral and clinical decision-making support are important for reducing delays in reaching and receiving appropriate and quality care. This paper presents analysis of the use of a pilot referral and decision ...

    Authors: Ebenezer Oduro-Mensah, Irene Akua Agyepong, Edith Frimpong, Marjolein Zweekhorst and Linda Amarkai Vanotoo

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. To examine the association between the Apgar score and neonatal mortality over gestational age in China and to explore whether this association changed when Apgar scores were combined at 1 and 5 min.

    Authors: Yi Mu, Mingrong Li, Jun Zhu, Yanping Wang, Aiyun Xing, Zheng Liu, Yanxia Xie, Xiaodong Wang and Juan Liang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Fragile and conflict-affected states contribute with more than 60% of the global burden of maternal mortality. There is an alarming need for research exploring maternal health service access and quality and ad...

    Authors: Josephine Obel, Antonio Isidro Carrion Martin, Abdul Wasay Mullahzada, Ronald Kremer and Nanna Maaløe

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  48. Preterm birth is defined as the birth of a baby before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Worldwide, prematurity is the second foremost cause of death in children under the age of 5 years. Preterm birth also giv...

    Authors: Negeso Gebeyehu Gejo, Melaku Tesfaye W/mariam, Biruk Assefa Kebede, Ritbano Ahmed Abdo, Abebe Alemu Anshebo, Hassen Mosa Halil, Biruktawit Fekade Woldu and Nuradin Abusha Katiso

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  49. Most previous studies conducted in non-Middle Eastern populations have suggested that an increase in the number of parity/live birth(s) leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, although their finding...

    Authors: Seyyed Saeed Moazzeni, Hossein Toreyhi, Samaneh Asgari, Fereidoun Azizi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani and Farzad Hadaegh

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  50. Globally, approximately 15 million babies are born preterm every year. Complications of prematurity are the leading cause of under-five mortality. There is overwhelming evidence from low, middle, and high-inco...

    Authors: Selamawit Mengesha Bilal, Henok Tadele, Teshome Abuka Abebo, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Mekonnen Muleta, Fitsum W/Gebriel, Akalewold Alemayehu, Yusuf Haji, Dejene Hailu Kassa, Ayalew Astatkie, Anteneh Asefa, Million Teshome, Aknaw Kawza, Shemels Wangoro, Thomas Brune, Nalini Singhal…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2021 21:25

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

Annual Journal Metrics