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Breastfeeding

Section Edited by Vishnu Khanal

This section considers studies regarding all aspects of breastfeeding preparation, initiation, duration, support, outcomes, and all other aspects of breastfeeding.

  1. Content type: Research article

    Lactating women need to consume a high-quality diet to replete nutrient stores depleted during pregnancy and to ensure sufficient nutrition for breastfeeding. However, several studies reported suboptimal dieta...

    Authors: Kai Yu, Yong Xue, Wenzhi Zhao, Ai Zhao, Wenjun Li, Yumei Zhang and Peiyu Wang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:379

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Maternal obesity and rapid infant weight gain have been associated with increased risk of obesity in childhood. Breastfeeding is suggested to be protective against childhood obesity, but no previous study has ...

    Authors: Nashita Patel, Kathryn V. Dalrymple, Annette L. Briley, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Paul T. Seed, Angela C. Flynn and Lucilla Poston

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:355

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Increasing evidence shows that antibiotic use in pregnancy may increase the risk of childhood asthma but epidemiologic studies are still limited and findings are inconsistent. Meanwhile, exclusive and prolonge...

    Authors: Xiaona Huo, Shuyuan Chu, Li Hua, Yixiao Bao, Li Du, Jian Xu and Jun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:341

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  4. Content type: Research article

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as the optimal way to feed infants below 6 months of age. The benefits of EBF are well documented. However, in Tanzania, EBF is still ra...

    Authors: Melina Mgongo, Tamara H. Hussein, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Siri Vangen, Sia E. Msuya and Margareta Wandel

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:323

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Adequate nutrition is essential during pregnancy and lactation to provide sufficient energy and nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of the mother, fetus and infant. The primary objective of this stu...

    Authors: Jacinto Mantaring, Jalil Benyacoub, Raul Destura, Sophie Pecquet, Karine Vidal, Sheri Volger and Valerie Guinto

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:193

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) lowers the risk for all-cause mortality in babies, including those with low birth weight. However, rates of neonatal mortality and delayed initiation of breastfeeding r...

    Authors: M. N. Ndirangu, S. M. Gatimu, H. M. Mwinyi and D. C. Kibiwott

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:171

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Many women in the UK stop breastfeeding before they would like to, and earlier than is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the potential health benefits for mother and baby, new ways of s...

    Authors: Rhiannon Phillips, Lauren Copeland, Aimee Grant, Julia Sanders, Nina Gobat, Sally Tedstone, Helen Stanton, Laura Merrett, Stephen Rollnick, Michael Robling, Amy Brown, Billie Hunter, Deborah Fitzsimmons, Sian Regan, Heather Trickey and Shantini Paranjothy

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:90

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Despite almost all babies being breastfed initially, the exclusive breastfeeding rate at six months is less than 30% in China. Improving professionals’ knowledge and practical skill is a key government strateg...

    Authors: Yuan Ying Ma, Louise L. Wallace, Li Qian Qiu, Joanna Kosmala-Anderson and Naomi Bartle

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:80

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  9. Content type: Case report

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that increases a woman’s risk of later-life cardiovascular disease. Breastfeeding may counteract the negative cardiovascular sequela associate...

    Authors: Jill Demirci, Mandy Schmella, Melissa Glasser, Lisa Bodnar and Katherine P. Himes

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:68

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    The World Health Organization leads a global strategy to promote the initiation and maintenance of breast-feeding.

    Authors: Susana Martín-Iglesias, M. Jesús Santamaría-Martín, Ahinoa Alonso-Álvarez, Milagros Rico-Blázquez, Isabel del Cura-González, Ricardo Rodríguez-Barrientosn, Aurora Barberá-Martín, Teresa Sanz-Cuesta, M. Isabel Coghen-Vigueras, Isabel de Antonio-Ramírez, Isabel Durand-Rincón, Felisa Garrido-Rodriguez, María Jesús Geijo-Rincón, Rebeca Mielgo-Salvador, M. Soledad Morales-Montalvá, M. Asunción Reviriego-Gutiérrez…

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:59

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The nutritional status of infants born to teenage mothers can be sub-optimal compared to those born to older mothers. One contributing factor is inappropriate feeding practices adopted by teenage mothers. Litt...

    Authors: Ngcwalisa Amanda Jama, Aurene Wilford, Lyn Haskins, Anna Coutsoudis, Lenore Spies and Christiane Horwood

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:52

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The benefits of breastfeeding for the infant as well for the mother are well-known. It is recognized that obese (Body Mass Index ≥30 kg/m2) women may have less antenatal intention to breastfeed, and shortened dur...

    Authors: Ing-Marie Claesson, Lotta Larsson, Linda Steen and Siw Alehagen

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:39

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  13. Content type: Research article

    A cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for breastfeeding conducted in areas with low breastfeeding rates in the UK reported a statistically significant increase in breastfeeding at 6–8 ...

    Authors: Maxine Johnson, Barbara Whelan, Clare Relton, Kate Thomas, Mark Strong, Elaine Scott and Mary J. Renfrew

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:20

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The emerging adoption of the electronic medical record (EMR) in primary care enables clinicians and researchers to efficiently examine epidemiological trends in child health, including infant feeding practices.

    Authors: Emily Bartsch, Alison L. Park, Jacqueline Young, Joel G. Ray and Karen Tu

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2018 18:1

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Full breastfeeding is the ultimate aim for preterm infants to ensure they receive the full benefits of human milk however, preterm infants face a number of challenges associated with their immaturity and assoc...

    Authors: Donna T. Geddes, Kok Chooi, Kathryn Nancarrow, Anna R. Hepworth, Hazel Gardner and Karen Simmer

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:386

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Controversy exists regarding ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) and its clinical impact on breastfeeding, including the benefits, or otherwise, of tongue-tie release (frenotomy). As exclusive breastfeeding rates in Ir...

    Authors: Kathryn Muldoon, Louise Gallagher, Denise McGuinness and Valerie Smith

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:373

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Many young men and women expect to co-parent their newborn infant. This may have a positive or negative impact on decisions to breastfeed, which is an important health behaviour, influenced by cultural and psy...

    Authors: Vivien Swanson, Leena Hannula, Linda Eriksson, Malin Häggkvist Wallin and Joan Strutton

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:204

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Validating a questionnaire/instrument (whether developed or adapted) before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. This article presents the modification of an Irish questionnaire for a Nige...

    Authors: Andy Emmanuel and Sheila E. Clow

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:174

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance t...

    Authors: Diana M. Bond, Jonathan M. Morris and Natasha Nassar

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:148

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Preterm infants have an immature sucking behavior and the capacity to be exclusively breastfed may be reduced for a period of weeks or months, depending on gestational age. Nipple shields have been used, not o...

    Authors: Renée Flacking and Fiona Dykes

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:1

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Correct measurement and continuous monitoring of exclusive breastfeeding are essential to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Measuring exclusive breastfeeding is a complex issue as rates can vary according to th...

    Authors: Vishnu Khanal, Andy H. Lee, Jane A. Scott, Rajendra Karkee and Colin W. Binns

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:389

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Family culture and beliefs are passed through the generations within families and influence what constitutes appropriate infant care. This includes infant feeding decisions where a family history and support n...

    Authors: K. L. Darwent, R. J. McInnes and V. Swanson

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:315

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  23. Content type: Research article

    To assess the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cracked nipples in the first month postpartum.

    Authors: Kamila Juliana da Silva Santos, Géssica Silva Santana, Tatiana de Oliveira Vieira, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles Santos, Elsa Regina Justo Giugliani and Graciete Oliveira Vieira

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:209

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The U.S. continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the industrialized world. Studies have shown that full-time employment and early return to work decreased breastfeeding duration, but little ...

    Authors: Rada K. Dagher, Patricia M. McGovern, Jesse D. Schold and Xian J. Randall

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:194

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Transmasculine individuals are people who were assigned as female at birth, but identify on the male side of the gender spectrum. They might choose to use and engage their bodies to be pregnant, birth a baby, ...

    Authors: Trevor MacDonald, Joy Noel-Weiss, Diana West, Michelle Walks, MaryLynne Biener, Alanna Kibbe and Elizabeth Myler

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:106

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal care (PNC) has an effect on women’s breastfeeding practices. This study aims to examine the influence of adequacy of PNC initiation and services use on breastfe...

    Authors: Christy Costanian, Alison K. Macpherson and Hala Tamim

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:100

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life has enormous potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. The older generation, particularly the infant’s grandmothers, play a central role ...

    Authors: Joel Negin, Jenna Coffman, Pavle Vizintin and Camille Raynes-Greenow

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:91

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The caesarean section (c-section) rate in Canada is 27.1 %, well above the 5–15 % of deliveries suggested by the World Health Organization in 2009. Emergency and planned c-sections may adversely affect breastf...

    Authors: Amy J. Hobbs, Cynthia A. Mannion, Sheila W. McDonald, Meredith Brockway and Suzanne C. Tough

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:90

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and breastfeeding has been extensively discussed in the literature. However, there is some evidence that this relationship can differ with immigration status...

    Authors: Wen-chi Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li Wu and Tung-liang Chiang

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2015 15:298

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Whilst it is recommended that babies are breastfed exclusively for the first six months, many mothers do not maintain breastfeeding for this length of time. Previous research confirms that women and midwives v...

    Authors: Emma L Giles, Matthew Holmes, Elaine McColl, Falko F Sniehotta and Jean M Adams

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2015 15:116

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is recommended but few parents achieve this; particularly younger and less well-educated mothers. Many parents introduce infant formula milk to manage feeding but describ...

    Authors: Rhona J McInnes, Alix Arbuckle and Pat Hoddinott

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2015 15:81

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Breastfeeding is recognised as the optimal method for feeding infants with health gains made by reducing infectious diseases in infancy; and chronic diseases, including obesity, in childhood, adolescence and a...

    Authors: Danielle Gallegos, Rebekah Russell-Bennett, Josephine Previte and Joy Parkinson

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:374

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Despite a gradual increase in breastfeeding rates, overall in the UK there are wide variations, with a trend towards breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks remaining below 40% in less affluent areas. While financial...

    Authors: Barbara Whelan, Kate J Thomas, Patrice Van Cleemput, Heather Whitford, Mark Strong, Mary J Renfrew, Elaine Scott and Clare Relton

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:355

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  34. Content type: Study protocol

    Breastfeeding is associated with significant positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. However, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization, exclusive breastfeeding for six months is unc...

    Authors: Helen L McLachlan, Della A Forster, Lisa H Amir, Rhonda Small, Meabh Cullinane, Lyndsey F Watson and Touran Shafiei

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:346

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  35. Content type: Research article

    HIV-positive mothers are likely to exclusively breastfeed if they perceive exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) beneficial to them and their infants. Nevertheless, very little is known in Malawi about HIV-positive mo...

    Authors: Ursula K Kafulafula, Mary K Hutchinson, Susan Gennaro and Sally Guttmacher

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:247

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Child undernutrition and poor feeding practices remain a concern in Ghana. The Growth Monitoring and Promotion (GMP) programme seeks to empower mothers to provide appropriate child care. Although the program h...

    Authors: Sandra Gyampoh, Gloria Ethel Otoo and Richmond Nii Okai Aryeetey

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:180

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  37. Content type: Study protocol

    The risks of not breastfeeding for mother and infant are well established, yet in Australia, although most women initiate breastfeeding many discontinue breastfeeding altogether and few women exclusively breastfe...

    Authors: Della A Forster, Helen L McLachlan, Mary-Ann Davey, Lisa H Amir, Lisa Gold, Rhonda Small, Kate Mortensen, Anita M Moorhead, Heather A Grimes and Fiona E McLardie-Hore

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:177

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Determinants of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) differ in effect and magnitude across populations. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with discontinuation of EBF in a municipa...

    Authors: Tatiana O Vieira, Graciete O Vieira, Nelson F de Oliveira, Carlos M C Mendes, Elsa Regina J Giugliani and Luciana R Silva

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:175

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  39. Content type: Research article

    When breastfeeding is difficult or impossible during the neonatal period, an analysis of muscle activity can help determine the best method for substituting it to promote the child’s development. The aim of th...

    Authors: Ellia CL França, Cejana B Sousa, Lucas C Aragão and Luciane R Costa

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:154

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  40. Content type: Research article

    In vitro and in vivo analyses differ between the number of milk ducts found in the lactating breast, and there is a lack of knowledge as to whether or not external factors in the mother or the child affect the...

    Authors: Julia Jütte, Ariane Hohoff, Cristina Sauerland, Dirk Wiechmann and Thomas Stamm

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:124

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Although the majority of women in England initiate breastfeeding, approximately one third cease breastfeeding by six weeks and many of these women report they would like to have breastfed for longer.

    Authors: Laura L Oakley, Jane Henderson, Maggie Redshaw and Maria A Quigley

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:88

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions am...

    Authors: Baltica Cabieses, Dagmar Waiblinger, Gillian Santorelli and Rosemary RC McEachan

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:50

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Best practice guidelines to promote breastfeeding suggest that (i) mothers hold their babies in naked body contact immediately after birth, (ii) babies remain undisturbed for at least one hour and (iii) breast...

    Authors: Ruth M Cantrill, Debra K Creedy, Marie Cooke and Fiona Dykes

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014 14:20

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The benefits of breastfeeding are well-recognised. The majority of first-time mothers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic however do not follow WHO guidelines of exclusively breastfeeding for the first six...

    Authors: Hope Mei Hong Lee, Jo Durham, Jenny Booth and Vanphanom Sychareun

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013 13:223

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  45. Content type: Research article

    International studies suggest that breastfeeding interventions in primary care are more effective than usual care in increasing short and long term breastfeeding rates. Interventions that combine pre- and post...

    Authors: Jenny Ingram

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013 13:192

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Becoming a parent of a preterm baby requiring neonatal care constitutes an extraordinary life situation in which parenting begins and evolves in a medical and unfamiliar setting. Although there is increasing e...

    Authors: Renée Flacking and Fiona Dykes

    Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013 13:179

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