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Table 4 Association between perinatal depression and SMS messaging patterns

From: Perinatal depression and its impact on infant outcomes and maternal-nurse SMS communication in a cohort of Kenyan women

ANTENATAL DEPRESSION
Ever vs. never sending an SMS message
Presence of antenatal depression (n) Proportion who ever sent an SMS (n (%) Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes (n = 163) 150 (92.0%) 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.05* 0.97 (0.97, 0.98) < 0.0001*
No (n = 409) 384 (93.9%)     
Total participant SMS sent
Presence of antenatal depression (n) Total SMS Count
Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes (n = 163) 14 (5–38) 0.77 (0.72, 0.82) < 0.0001* 0.91 (0.87, 0.96) < 0.0001*
No (n = 409) 25 (8–44)     
Total participant long SMS sent
Presence of antenatal depression (n) Long SMS Count
Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes (n = 163) 12 (3–28) 0.81 (0.79, 0.84) < 0.0001* 0.92 (0.89, 0.96) < 0.0001*
No (n = 409) 19 (6–34)     
PERSISTENT PERINATAL DEPRESSION
Likelihood of ever versus never sending an SMS message
Presence of persistent depression (n) Proportion who ever sent an SMS (n (%) Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes (n = 27) 25 (92.6%) 1.00 (0.93, 1.07) 0.91 0.96 (0.91, 1.00) 0.08
No (n = 545) 509 (93.4%)     
Ratio of mean participant SMS counts
Presence of persistent depression (n) Total SMS Count
Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes (n = 27) 15 (8–35) 0.74 (0.54, 1.01) 0.05 0.81 (0.70, 0.94) 0.005*
No (n = 545) 22 (7–44)     
Ratio of mean participant long SMS messages sent
Presence of persistent depression (n) Long SMS Count
Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes (n = 27) 13 (7–31) 0.78 (0.62, 0.97) 0.03* 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 0.02*
No (n = 545) 17 (5–33)     
  1. aAdjusted for self-reported SMS behaviors including participant response rate to received messages, physical sharing of phone, phone access, SMS as participants’ primary mode of communication, typical SMS use, and difficulty receiving SMS messages from the system