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Table 2 Correlates of Perinatal Depression

From: Perinatal depression and its impact on infant outcomes and maternal-nurse SMS communication in a cohort of Kenyan women

Correlates Any Perinatal Depression
n (%) or Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes
188 (32.9%)
No
384 (67.1%)
Adolescent 22 (12.0%) 36 (9.4%) 1.10 (0.86, 1.39) 0.45 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) 0.96
Not Married/Cohabitating 26 (14.3%) 38 (9.9%) 1.18 (0.88, 1.58) 0.26 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 0.86
Less than primary education 15 (8.0%) 32 (8.3%) 1.02 (0.99, 1.05) 0.13 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) 0.43
Unemployed 127 (67.6%) 267 (69.5%) 1.07 (0.93, 1.23) 0.34 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) 0.50
Primigravida 63 (33.5%) 131 (34.1%) 1.09 (0.95, 1.24) 0.21 1.14 (1.04, 1.24) 0.005*
Living Childrenb 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1.01 (0.95, 1.06) 0.83 1.05 (0.99, 1.10) 0.08
History of Miscarriage 16 (8.5%) 49 (12.8%) 0.81 (0.61, 1.08) 0.15 0.81 (0.74, 0.88) < 0.0001*
Undesired pregnancy 83 (44.1%) 112 (29.3%) 1.30 (1.11, 1.52) 0.001* 1.23 (1.13, 1.35) < 0.0001*
Never Used Family Planning 58 (30.9%) 102 (26.6%) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 0.99 0.98 (0.79, 1.22) 0.87
Monthly Income (in KSh) c 8000 (2000–12,000) 10,000 (8000–14,000) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.98 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.87
Abuse during pregnancy 10 (5.3%) 9 (2.3%) 1.73 (1.57, 1.90) < 0.0001* 1.76 (1.64, 1.90) < 0.0001*
Living with HIV 13 (7.0%) 23 (6.0%) 0.88 (0.43, 1.81) 0.73 0.86 (0.48, 1.54) 0.62
Correlates Antenatal Depression
n (%) or Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes
163 (28.5%)
No
409 (71.5%)
Adolescent Age 21 (13.2%) 37 (9.1%) 1.19 (0.76, 1.88) 0.44 1.04 (0.71, 1.52) 0.85
Not Married/Cohabitating 24 (15.3%) 40 (9.8%) 1.24 (0.90, 1.71) 0.18 1.10 (1.00, 1.21) 0.04*
Less than primary education 13 (8.0%) 34 (8.3%) 1.04 (0.97, 1.10) 0.31 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 0.74
Unemployed 113 (69.3%) 281 (68.7%) 1.19 (1.18, 1.20) < 0.001* 1.09 (1.08, 1.11) < 0.0001*
Primigravida 55 (33.7%) 139 (34.0%) 1.12 (0.94, 1.35) 0.21 1.21 (1.02, 1.42) 0.03*
Living Childrenb 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) 0.79 1.08 (1.08, 1.08) < 0.0001*
History of Miscarriage 16 (9.8%) 49 (12.0%) 0.95 (0.84, 1.08) 0.41 0.94 (0.90, 0.99) 0.03*
Undesired pregnancy 73 (44.8%) 122 (30.0%) 1.28 (1.16, 1.41) < 0.0001* 1.17 (1.14, 1.20) < 0.0001*
Never Used Family Planning 53 (32.5%) 107 (26.2%) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) 0.36 1.00 (0.90, 1.12) 0.97
Monthly Income (in KSh) c 6000 (1500–10,500) 10,000 (8000–15,000) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) d < 0.0001* 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) e < 0.0001*
Abuse during pregnancy 9 (5.5%) 10 (2.4%) 1.81 (1.59, 2.05) < 0.0001* 1.79 (1.65, 1.94) < 0.0001*
Living with HIV 12 (7.4%) 24 (5.9%) 0.90 (0.50, 1.61) 0.71 0.83 (0.53, 1.31) 0.43
Correlates Postpartum Depression
n (%) or Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes
52 (9.1%)
No
52 (90.9%)
Adolescent Age 4 (8.0%) 54 (10.4%) 0.74 (0.23, 2.39) 0.61 0.79 (0.32, 1.99) 0.62
Not Married/Cohabitating 6 (11.8%) 58 (11.3%) 0.99 (0.80, 1.22) 0.89 0.81 (0.51, 1.29) 0.38
Less than primary education 6 (11.5%) 41 (7.9%) 1.47 (1.35, 1.60) < 0.0001* 1.51 (1.29, 1.78) < 0.0001*
Unemployed 34 (65.4%) 360 (69.2%) 0.93 (0.49, 1.76) 0.83 0.97 (0.62, 1.52) 0.89
Primigravida 14 (26.9%) 180 (34.6%) 0.78 (0.76, 0.80) < 0.0001* 1.33 (1.29, 1.37) < 0.0001*
Living Childrenb 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1.22 (1.15, 1.29) < 0.0001* 1.18 (1.00, 1.40) 0.05
History of Miscarriage 7 (13.5%) 58 (11.2%) 1.25 (0.40, 3.88) 0.70 0.84 (0.32, 2.25) 0.74
Undesired pregnancy 21 (40.4%) 174 (33.6%) 1.18 (0.84, 1.67) 0.34 1.07 (0.68, 1.70) 0.77
Never Used Family Planning 13 (25.0%) 147 (28.3%) 0.79 (0.48, 1.30) 0.35 0.88 (0.46, 1.69) 0.70
Monthly Income (in KSh) c 8000 (2000–16,000) 10,000 (6000–14,000) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 0.30 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) 0.05*
Abuse during pregnancy 2 (3.8%) 17 (3.3%) 1.24 (0.94, 1.64) 0.12 1.53 (1.13, 2.07) 0.006*
Living with HIV 5 (9.8%) 31 (6.0%) 1.39 (0.59, 3.27) 0.45 1.45 (0.85, 2.47) 0.17
Correlates Persistent Perinatal Depression
n (%) or Median (IQR)
Relative Risk (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Relative Riska (95% CI) p-value
Yes
27 (4.7%)
No
545 (95.3%)
Adolescent Age 3 (12.0%) 55 (10.2%) 1.02 (0.75, 1.40) 0.88 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 0.30
Not Married/Cohabitating 4 (15.4%) 60 (11.1%) 1.16 (0.85, 1.59) 0.35 1.34 (1.05, 1.71) 0.02*
Less than primary education 4 (14.8%) 43 (7.9%) 1.89 (1.74, 2.06) < 0.0001* 1.39 (0.91, 2.10) 0.12
Unemployed 20 (74.1%) 374 (68.6%) 1.58 (1.32, 1.89) < 0.0001* 1.36 (1.06, 1.75) 0.02*
Primigravida 6 (22.2%) 188 (34.5%) 0.76 (0.74, 0.78) < 0.0001* 1.76 (1.29, 2.40) 0.0004*
Living Childrenb 2 (0.5–3) 1 (0–2) 1.32 (1.24, 1.41) < 0.0001* 1.39 (1.25, 1.54) < 0.0001*
History of Miscarriage 7 (25.9%) 58 (10.6%) 2.59 (2.04, 3.28) < 0.0001* 1.46 (1.00, 2.13) 0.05*
Undesired pregnancy 11 (40.7%) 184 (33.9%) 1.00 (0.95, 1.04) 0.87 0.75 (0.66, 0.86) < 0.0001*
Never Used Family Planning 8 (29.6%) 152 (27.9%) 0.84 (0.63, 1.13) 0.25 0.95 (0.76, 1.19) 0.67
Monthly Income (in KSh)c 2000 (1500–6600) 10,000 (6500–14,000) 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) < 0.0001* 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) < 0.0001*
Abuse during pregnancy 1 (3.7%) 18 (3.3%) 1.35 (0.86, 2.14) 0.20 1.51 (0.99, 2.30) 0.05
Living with HIV 4 (15.4%) 32 (5.9%) 1.75 (1.50, 2.03) < 0.0001* 1.43 (1.34, 1.52) < 0.0001*
  1. aAdjusted for all other correlates listed in table
  2. bThis relative risk is given as the risk of having any perinatal depression comparing a mother with one additional living child to a mother with a certain number of living children
  3. cThis relative risk is given as the risk of having any perinatal depression comparing a mother with an additional 1000 KSh in monthly household income to a mother of a certain monthly household income
  4. dTaken to the ten-thousandth place, this relative risk and corresponding CI is 0.9889 (0.9885, 0.9893)
  5. eTaken to the ten-thousandth place, this adjusted relative risk and corresponding CI is 0.9917 (0.9912, 0.9923)