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Table 1 Baseline information of participants

From: Effectiveness of early essential newborn care on breastfeeding and maternal outcomes: a nonrandomized controlled study

Variables Intervention group (n = 91) Control group (n = 91) pa
Maternal
Age (years), Mean ± SD 30.23 ± 2.78 30.32 ± 3.27 0.845
Educational level (%)    0.073
 High school and below 2 (2.2) 8 (8.8)  
 Junior college 14 (15.4) 8 (8.8)  
 Undergraduate and above 75 (82.4) 75 (82.4)  
Gestational age (weeks), Mean ± SD 39.63 ± 0.98 39.51 ± 0.97 0.403
Previous obstetric history, n (%)    0.628
 Primiparous 65 (71.4) 62 (68.1)  
 Multiparous 26 (28.6) 29 (31.9)  
Nipple pattern of women, n (%)    0.415
 Raised 77 (84.6) 83 (91.2)  
 Flat 10 (11.0) 6 (6.6)  
 Sunken 4 (4.4) 2 (2.2)  
STAI-S*, Mean ± SD 42.92 ± 9.45 43.52 ± 10.15 0.684
Height (m*), Mean ± SD 1.60 ± 0.04 1.61 ± 0.05 0.107
Weight (kg*), Mean ± SD 64.69 ± 7.82 66.50 ± 7.03 0.102
Newborn
Sex, n (%)    0.767
 Male 47 (51.6) 45 (49.5)  
 Female 44 (48.4) 46 (50.5)  
Length (cm*), Mean ± SD 49.78 ± 1.58 50.04 ± 1.48 0.245
Birthweight (g*), Mean ± SD 3251.65 ± 362.22 3232.53 ± 317.33 0.705
  1. a the two-tailed t test or chi-square test were used for comparisons between the intervention group and the control group
  2. *STAI-S the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, m metres, kg kilograms