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Table 3 Effect of iron supplementation on the neurodevelopment of children at around 40 days of life

From: Adapting prenatal iron supplementation to maternal needs results in optimal child neurodevelopment: a follow-up of the ECLIPSES Study

  Stratum 1
(0: 80 mg/d, 1: 40 mg/d)
Stratum 2
(0: 40 mg/d, 1: 20 mg/d)
  β (95%CI) OR (95%CI) a β (95%CI) OR (95%CI) a
Cognitive development
 Crude model 0.98 (-0.82, 2.87) 1.31 (0.34, 4.95) -2.00 (-4.71, 0.70) 0.29 (0.03, 2.81)
 Adjusted model 1.46 (-2.15, 5.07) 0.68 (0.09, 5.29) -4.04 (-7.27, 0.80) 0.85 (0.26, 2.68)
Language development
 Crude model -0.53 (-2.37, 1.32) 0.78 (0.36, 1.65) -2.31 (-4.65, 0.03) 0.48 (0.14, 1.71)
 Adjusted model 1.30 (-1.99, 4.59) 0.54 (0.14, 2.05) -0.36 (-3.47, 2.75) 1.35 (0.65, 5.79)
Receptive language
 Crude model 0.30 (-0.77, 0.17) 1.04 (0.36, 3.03) -0.55 (-1.16, 0.06) 1.80 (0.32, 10.08)
 Adjusted model -0.14 (-1.04, 0.75) 0.72 (0.10, 5.35) -0.52 (-1.32, 0.28) 0.94 (0.32, 2.68)
Expressive language
 Crude model 0.12 (-0.22, 0.45) 0.70 (0.34, 1.44) -0.21 (-0.69, 0.27) 1.56 (0.64, 3.78)
 Adjusted model 0.44 (-0.19, 1.06) 1.30 (0.30, 5.61) 0.18 (-0.36, 0.72) 2.64 (0.48, 14.58)
Motor development
 Crude model 0.56 (-1.96, 3.08) 1.03 (0.60, 1.78) -0.92 (-4.13, 2.30) 0.68 (0.33, 1.42)
 Adjusted model 2.04 (-3.88, 7.96) 1.19 (0.45, 3.15) -3.76 (-9.30, 1.78) 0.91 (0.30, 2.73)
Fine motor
 Crude model 0.07 (-0.34, 0.49) 0.78 (0.41, 1.47) -0.04 (-0.64, 0.56) 1.16 (0.47, 2.82)
 Adjusted model 0.23 (-0.58, 1.03) 0.43 (0.13, 1.43) -0.24 (-1.29, 0.81) 0.97 (0.26, 3.61)
Gross motor
 Crude model -0.12 (-0.62, 0.38) 0.73 (0.40, 1.32) -0.18 (-0.90, 0.53) 0.71 (0.32, 1.59)
 Adjusted model 0.32 (-0.65, 1.30) 1.03 (0.34, 3.11) -0.13 (-0.66, 0.41) 0.84 (0.31, 8.65)
  1. Doses of iron: Stratum 1 (80 vs 40 mg/d) and Stratum 2 (40 vs 20 mg/d)
  2. Models adjusted for maternal age at recruitment, parity, pregnancy planning, familiar socioeconomic status, smoking at recruitment, baseline maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal anxiety during pregnancy, postpartum depression, serum biomarker levels at the first and third trimester of pregnancy (haemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin D and polyunsaturated fatty acids), serum biomarker levels at the first trimester of pregnancy (red blood cell folate and vitamin B12), physical activity during pregnancy, adherence to Mediterranean diet and daily energy intake at the first trimester of pregnancy, child’s age at assessment, child’s sex, gestational age, Apgar test scores, head circumference at birth, and type of feeding at birth and assessment
  3. aOdds ratios express the chance to go from low to middle-high cognitive development and language development, and from low-middle to high motor development