Skip to main content

Table 2 Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms, and general anxiety and pregnancy related anxiety symptoms in women with and without gestational anemia. The values given are unadjusted median (minimum – maximum) or n (%) in each group, the estimated difference of the mean scores (B) or the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the risk of postpartum depression between the anemic and non-anemic women from a linear or logistic regression models

From: Gestational anemia and maternal antenatal and postpartum psychological distress in a prospective FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study

  Hb < 110 g/l
during pregnancy
N = 301
Hb ≥ 110 g/l
during pregnancy
N = 972
B/ORa CI 95% p-value
Antenatal depressive symptoms
 EPDS
 Early pregnancy
5.0 (0–26) 5.0 (0–27) 0.24 -0.37–0.85 0.446
 EPDS
 Mid-pregnancy
4.0 (0–22) 4.0 (0–25) -0.11 -0.73–0.52 0.740
 EPDS
 Late pregnancy
4.0 (0–19) 4.0 (0–19) 0.15 -0.49–0.79 0.642
 EPDS ≥ 10
 Late pregnancy
28/189 (14.8%) 95 (13.6%) OR 0.96 0.59–1.57 0.882
Postpartum depressive symptoms
 EPDS
 3 months postpartum
4.0 (0–17) 3.0 (0–21) 0.30 -0.38–0.98 0.381
 EPDS
 6 months postpartum
3.0 (0–24) 3.0 (0–22) 0.11 -0.72–0.94 0.795
 EPDS ≥ 10
 3 months postpartum
16/167 (9.6%) 60 (9.9%) OR 1.01 0.54–1.85 0.988
 EPDS ≥ 10
 6 months postpartum
20/139 (14.4%) 55 (10.7%) OR 1.32 0.75–2.31 0.334
Antenatal general and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms
 SCL
 Early pregnancy
3.0 (0–30) 2.0 (0–28) 0.62 0.02–1.23 0.043*
 SCL
 Mid-pregnancy
3.0 (0–21) 3.0 (0–29) 0.19 -0.47–0.85 0.575
 SCL
 Late pregnancy
2.0 (0–25) 2.0 (0–27) 0.10 -0.55–0.76 0.756
 PRAQ
 Early pregnancy
21.0 (12–40) 22.0 (11–45) -0.10 -2.45–2.25 0.933
 PRAQ
 Mid-pregnancy
22.0 (10–43) 23.0 (10–46) -1.17 -2.22– (-0.12) 0.029*
 PRAQ
 Late pregnancy
24.0 (10–50) 23.0 (10–49) -0.35 -1.45–0.75 0.535
Postnatal anxiety symptoms
 SCL
 3 months postpartum
1.0 (0–17) 1.0 (0–24) 0.23 -0.40–0.86 0.469
 SCL
 6 months postpartum
1.0 (0–20) 1.0 (0–29) 0.16 -0.63–0.94 0.693
  1. EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, SCL Symptom Checklist-90 score, PRAQ (Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire score
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age, parity and smoking during pregnancy, maternal education, gestational age