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Table 3 Obstetric characteristics of LM and GM women who gave birth in North Shewa Zone Hospitals, 2021

From: Adverse obstetric outcome and its associated factors in public hospitals of North Ethiopia: does parity make a difference?

Variables Category Parity, n (%)  
LM (360) GM (180) p-value
Interpregnancy interval < 24 months
≥ 24 months
18 (5.0)
342 (95.0)
12 (6.7)
168 (93.3)
0.425
ANC visit Yes
No
348 (96.7)
12 (3.3)
156 (86.7)
24 (13.3)
0.000
GA at first ANC visit ≤ 16 weeks
> 16 weeks
218 (62.6)
130 (37.4)
60 (38.5)
96 (61.5)
0.000
Number of ANC visits 1 – 3
≥ 4
118 (33.9)
230 (66.1)
68 (43.6)
88 (56.4)
0.037
Past obstetric complications Yes
No
136 (37.8)
224 (62.2)
102 (56.7)
78 (43.3)
0.000
Types of complications Abortion
Stillbirth/IUFD
Neonatal mortality
Preterm delivery
Instrumental delivery
Cesarean section
Congenital anomaly
60 (16.7)
6 (1.7)
8 (2.2)
12 (3.3)
32 (8.9)
24 (6.7)
2 (0.6)
66 (36.7)
30 (16.7)
28 (15.6)
0 (0.0)
10 (5.6)
10 (5.6)
0 (0)
0.007*
Place of delivery (previous birth) Home
Health institution
18 (5.0)
342 (95.0)
38 (21.1)
142 (78.9)
0.000
Mode of delivery (Previous birth) Vaginal
Cesarean section
320 (88.8)
40 (11.1)
160 (88.9)
20 (11.1)
0.000
Distance of health institutions < 15 min
15 – 30 min
> 30 min
134 (37.2)
106 (29.4)
120 (33.3)
18 (10.0)
58 (32.2)
104 (57.8)
0.000
Gestational age Term
Preterm
Post-term
308 (85.6)
24 (6.7)
28 (7.8)
162 (90.0)
12 (6.7)
6 (3.3)
0.133
Contraception use Yes
No
276 (76.7)
84 (23.3)
124 (68.9)
56 (31.1)
0.052
Types of contraception used Injectable
Implant
IUCD
OCPs
Natural methods
Tubal ligation
138 (50.0)
100 (36.2)
10 (3.6)
22 (8.0)
6 (2.2)
0 (0)
50 (40.3)
54 (43.5)
0 (0)
14 (11.3)
4 (3.2)
2 (1.6)
0.065*
Planned pregnancy Yes
No
336 (93.3)
24 (6.7)
152 (84.4)
28 (15.6)
0.001
Postpartum counseling Yes
No
308 (85.6)
52 (14.4)
136 (75.6)
44 (24.4)
0.040
Alcohol use Yes
No
38 (10.6)
322 (89.4)
14 (7.8)
166 (92.2)
0.302
Newborn sex Male
Female
190 (52.8)
170 (47.2)
100 (55.6)
80 (44.4)
0.542
Birth weight Low birth weight
Normal
Macrosomic
38 (10.6)
294 (81.7)
28 (7.8)
20 (11.1)
148 (82.2)
12 (6.7)
0.887
APGAR score Low
Normal
22 (6.1)
338 (93.9)
18 (10.0)
162 (90.0)
0.104
  1. GA Gestational age, IUCD Intrauterine contraception device, IUFD Intrauterine fetal death, OCPs Oral contraception pills, SVD Spontaneous vaginal delivery
  2. *Fisher’s exact test