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Table 3 Interaction between GRSs and T3 dietary intake on newborn anthropometry outcomes

From: Impact of maternal dietary carbohydrate intake and vitamin D-related genetic risk score on birth length: the Vitamin D Pregnant Mother (VDPM) cohort study

Genetic risk score (GRS) Birth weight (g)   Birth length (cm)   Head circumference (cm)  
N Mean Std. Error Pinteraction Mean Std. Error P interaction Mean Std. Error Pinteraction
Vitamin D-GRS*
 ≤ 3 risk alleles 110 3197.46 40.90 0.611a
0.872b
0.524c
48.75 0.19 0.065a
0.073b
0.300c
33.97 0.18 0.982a
0.364b
0.227c
 ≥ 4 risk alleles 73 3233.58 50.84 48.70 0.23 33.93 0.23
VDR-GRS**
 < 2 risk alleles 102 3188.11 43.30 0.810a
0.775b
0.556c
48.80 0.19 0.032a
0.099b
0.447c
34.01 0.19 0.970a
0.701b
0.571c
 ≥ 2 risk alleles 79 3229.51 50.48 48.65 0.23 33.83 0.22
Non-VDR GRS***
 < 3 risk alleles 124 3250.11 38.82 0.841a
0.795b
0.710c
48.79 0.18 0.256a
0.079b
0.278c
34.06 0.17 0.835a
0.230b
0.168c
 ≥ 3 risk alleles 55 3148.72 60.40 48.56 0.28 33.80 0.26
  1. IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1, PAL Physical activity level, T3 Third trimester
  2. Adjusted for age, total energy intake in T3, pre-pregnancy BMI and vitamin D
  3. aInteraction between GRS and dietary carbohydrate intake
  4. binteraction between GRS and dietary protein intake
  5. cInteraction between GRS and dietary fat intake
  6. *All six SNPs in genes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D (vitamin D-GRS);
  7. **Two SNPs in VDR genes are included in the ‘VDR-GRS’;
  8. ***Four SNPs in DHCR7, GC, CYP24A1 and CYP2R1 genes are included in the ‘Non-VDR GRS score’