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Table 5 Social support for parenting and breastfeeding

From: Parenting stress in the early years – a survey of the impact of breastfeeding and social support for women in Finland and the UK

Parenting support
Main supporter Finland
N(%)
UK
N(%)
χ2(df) p ES1
Partner 883 (82.1%) 463(86.5%) 10.0 (3)  .018 V = .08
Family 118 (11.6%) 51(9.5%)    
Friends, peers 51 (5.0%) 21(3.9%)    
None 13 (1.3%) 0 (0%)    
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t (df) p d
How helpful (main supporter)? 4.8 (.56) 4.6 (.57) 4.85 (1050.13)2 < .001 .26
Shared parenting (range -14 to + 14) -4.7 (3.1) -5.4 (3.0) 4.67 (1483) < .001 .25
Quality of Professional Support (CARE) 35.7 (7.6) 36.5 (3.1) -2.19 (976.02)2 .029 -.12
Breastfeeding Support
 Number of formal supports .65 (.77) .68 (.72) -.81 (1154.08)2 .418 -.04
Formal Support N(%) N(%) χ2(1) p V
(Health services)
 Hospital 397 (39.1%) 229 (42.8%) 1.98 .159 .04
 Baby Clinics 263 (25.9%) 136 (25.4%) .044 .834 .05
 Number of informal supports 1.1 (.92) 1.5 (.68) -7.39 (944.60)2 < .001 -.41
Informal support
 Facebook Group 551 (54.3%) 272 (50.8%) 1.7 .196 -.03
 Other peer suppt 75 (7.4%) 164 (30.7%) 145.3 < .001 .31
 Doula 17 (1.7%) 8 (1.5%) 0.07 .790 .01
 Family 392 (38.6%) 249 (46.5%) 9.1 .003 .08
 Other 86 (8.5%) 116 (21.7%) 53.9 < .001 .19
  1. Effect size: χ2 analysis expressed as Cramers V; t-tests as Cohen’s d
  2. Welch’s correction for heterogeneity of variance applied