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Table 2 Characteristics (independent variables) dichotomized according to Cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery (dependent variable) on bivariate or crude analysis and results following adjusted analysis incorporating all significant (p < 0.05) independent variables on crude analysis

From: HbA1c at term delivery and adverse pregnancy outcome

Variable Cesarean Delivery (n = 307) Vaginal Delivery (n = 693) P Value RR (95% CI) Multivariable Logistic Regression Analysis
AOR (95%CI) P value
HbA1c (%) 5.4[5.2–5.7] 5.3[5.1–5.6]  < 0.001   1.47 (1.06–2.06)a 0.023
      1.04 (1.01–1.08)b 0.023
Gestational age (weeks) mean ± SD) 39.1 ± 1.2 39.0 ± 1.1 0.21    
Age (years, mean ± SD) 30.7 ± 4.4 30.6 ± 4.7 0.64    
Parity category    0.001     < 0.001
 0 148 (48.2%) 248 (35.8%)     
 1 92 (30.0%) 233 (33.6%)    0.29 (0.20–0.43)  < 0.001
 2 44 (14.3%) 122 (17.6%)    0.27 (0.17–0.45)  < 0.001
  ≥ 3 23 (7.5%) 90 (13.0%)    0.19 (0.10–0.34)  < 0.001
Previous miscarriage 63 (20.5%) 149 (21.5%) 0.73 0.95 (0.73–1.24)   
Ethnicity     < 0.001    0.006
  Malay 169 (55.0%) 452 (65.2%)     
  Chinese 37 (12.1%) 90 (13.0%)    1.17 (0.73–1.87) 0.51
  Indian 55 (17.9%) 61 (8.8%)    2.00 (1.28–3.12) 0.002
  Other 46 (15.0%) 90 (13.0%)    1.71 (1.10–2.68) 0.018
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 30.0 ± 5.0 28.4 ± 4.7  < 0.001   1.06 (1.02–1.09) 0.001
  Hemoglobin < 11 g/dl 74 (24.1%) 138 (19.9%) 0.14 1.28 (0.93–1.76)   
Medical & Obstetric history
Diabetes in pregnancy 88 (28.7%) 154 (22.2%) 0.028 1.29 (1.03–1.62) 1.07 (0.75–1.53) 0.72
  Anti-glycemic 24 (7.8%) 46 (6.6%) 0.50 1.18 (0.73–1.89)   
  Asthma 15 (4.9%) 38 (5.5%) 0.70 0.89 (0.50–1.60) 1.591.59)(0.501.5911.591.59)_   
Hypertension in pregnancy ppregnncypregnancy 21(6.8%) (6.8%) 28 (4.0%) 0.059 1.69 (0.98–2.93)   
Group B streptococcus carriage 25 (8.1%) 34 (4.9%) 0.045 1.66 (1.01–2.73) 1.83 (1.01–3.33) 0.049
Thalassemia trait 3 (1.0%) 7 (1.0%) 0.96 0.97 (0.25–3.72)   
HIV or Hepatitis B infection 0 (0.0%) 9 (1.3%) 0.064 *   
Previous Cesarean 93 (30.3%) 72 (10.4%)  < 0.001 2.92 (2.21–3.85) 7.30 (4.76–11.17) p < 0.001
Induction of labor 86 (28.0%) 120 (17.3)  < 0.001 1.62 (1.27–2.06) 1.85 (1.28–2.67) 0.001
Birth weight (kg) 3.14 ± 0.41 3.06 ± 0.39 0.003   1.82 (1.23–2.70) 0.003
  1. Values are stated as mean ± standard deviation, median [interquartile range] or n (%). Crude analysis by t test for continuous data, Mann–Whitney U test for non-parametric data, and Chi Square test for categoric variable. Adjustment made utilizing multivariable binary logistic regression analysis of significant independent variable with adjusted results shown if variable incorporated in the model
  2. a per 1% increase in HbA1c level
  3. b per 0.1% increase in HbA1c level