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Table 2 Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression modeling the odds of caesarean section, Sudan MICS 2014 (unweighted n = 5589)

From: Caesarean section in Sudan: findings from nationwide household surveys on rates, trends, and geographic and sociodemographic variability

  Crude analysis Adjusted analysis
OR % (95% CI) p-value* aOR % (95% CI) p-value*
Area of residence   < 0.001   0.368
 Rural (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Urban 2.3 (1.71,3.21) < 0.001 1.18 (0.82,1.69) 0.368
Region   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Khartoum (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Northern 1.30 (0.81,2.00) 0.230 1.71 (1.05,2.79) 0.032
 Eastern 0.21 (0.11,0.41) 0.000 0.58 (0.34,1.01) 0.055
 Central 0.50 (0.31,0.70) 0.001 0.96 (0.58,1.59) 0.878
 Kordofan 0.21 (0.11,0.31) 0.000 0.53 (0.30,0.96) 0.035
 Darfur 0.11 (0.11,0.21) 0.000 0.31 (0.17,0.57) < 0.001
Wealth index categories   < 0.001   0.650
 Richer (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Middle 0.33 (0.22,0.48) < 0.001 0.82 (0.53,1.26) 0.360
 Poorer 0.14 (0.10,0.20) < 0.001 0.87 (0.53,1.43) 0.569
Maternal age in years   0.041   < 0.001
 15–24 (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 25–34 1.21 (0.90,1.61) 0.311 1.42 (1.01,1.99) 0.042
 35+ 1.61 (1.11,2.30) 0.013 2.75 (1.71,4.43) < 0.001
Mother’s education   < 0.001   < 0.001
 None (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 Primary 2.71 (1.90,3.80) < 0.001 1.67 (1.17,2.37) 0.004
 Secondary+ 9.81 (6.91,14.00) < 0.001 3.3 (2.21,4.93) < 0.001
Number of times received antenatal care < 0.001   < 0.001
 0 (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 1–3 2.91 (1.40,6.00)   1.81 (0.86,3.81) 0.119
 4+ 10.2 (5.20,19.9)   4.42 (2.14,9.14) < 0.001
Child birth-order   < 0.001   0.002
 1 (Reference) 1.00   1.00  
 2–3 1.00 (0.7,1.3) 0.834 1.01 (0.69,1.48) 0.966
 4–6 0.50 (0.41,0.70) 0.000 0.52 (0.33,0.83) 0.006
 7+ 0.41 (0.31,0.70) 0.002 0.49 (0.26,0.94) 0.032
Previous birth interval   0.009   
 First birth (Reference) 1.00    
  < 2 years 0.61 (0.41,0.81) 0.001   
 2 years 0.61 (0.41,0.9) 0.004   
 3 years 0.81 (0.5,1.21) 0.204   
 4+ years 0.81 (0.5,1.11) 0.163   
Child’s sex   0.372   
 Male (Reference) 1.00    
 Female 0.9 (0.7,1.11) 0.372   
Size of child at birth   0.049   
 Larger than average (Reference) 1.00    
 Average 1.11 (0.70,1.50) 0.729   
 Smaller than average 0.70 (0.50,1.11) 0.125   
  1. *p-values in bold font are global Wald test p-values