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Table 2 Associations between late antenatal care initiation (> 12 gestational weeks) and exposure variables

From: Disparities in the timing of antenatal care initiation and associated factors in an ethnically dense maternal cohort with high levels of area deprivation

  Univariate* (n = 44,809) Model 1** (n = 44,809) Model 2** (n = 20,100)
OR (95% CI) > 12w RRR (95% CI) 13-19w (5368) RRR (95% CI) 20w + (3848) OR (95% CI) > 12w RRR (95% CI) 13-19w (5368) RRR (95% CI) 20w + (3848) OR (95% CI) > 12w
Ethnicity (baseline = W British)
 W Other 2.07 (1.93, 2.21) 1.92(1.76,2.09) 2.24(2.05,2.46) 2.31(2.16,2.48) 2.07(1.89, 2.26) 2.65(2.40, 2.92) 1.68(1.42, 1.98)
 B Caribbean 2.16 (1.86, 2.52 2.44(2.04,2.93) 1.79(1.43,2.25) 2.37(2.03,2.78) 2.33(1.93, 2.80) 2.41(1.90, 3.04) 1.81(1.32, 2.49)
 B African 2.70(2.46,2.96) 2.73(2.43,3.05) 2.66(2.34,3.02) 3.37(3.05,3.73) 2.97(2.63, 3.36) 4.03(3.51, 4.64) 2.45(1.98, 3.03)
 Indian 1.24(1.09,1.41) 1.21(1.02,1.42) 1.29(1.08,1.55) 1.69(1.47,1.93) 1.55(1.31, 1.85) 1.89(1.56, 2.29) 1.27(0.98, 1.66)
 Pakistani 1.32(1.24,1.42) 1.54(1.42,1.67) 1.04(0.93,1.15) 1.59(1.47,1.73) 1.59(1.43, 1.76) 1.57(1.38, 1.79) 1.28(1.08, 1.52)
 Bangladeshi 1.27(1.15,1.41) 1.65(1.48,1.85) 0.78(0.65,0.92) 1.56(1.40,1.75) 1.73(1.52, 1.97) 1.20(1.00, 1.45) 1.21(0.98, 1.50)
 Other 1.86(1.69,2.05) 1.78(1.58,2.01) 1.96(1.72,2.23) 2.15(1.95,2.37) 1.88(1.66, 2.13) 2.55(2.22, 2.93) 1.68(1.39, 2.03)
Area deprivation quintiles (baseline: < 20th centile, least deprived)
 Second lowest (20-40th) 1.26(1.11,1.43) 0.88(0.72,1.08) 1.55(1.33,1.80) 1.14(1.00,1.30) 0.79(0.65,0.97) 1.43(1.22,1.67)  
 Middle (40-60th) 0.77(0.70,0.85) 0.92(0.81,1.05) 0.65(0.57,0.74) 0.64(0.58,0.71) 0.75(0.66,0.86) 0.55(0.48,0.63)  
 Second highest (60-80th) 0.87(0.80,0.95) 1.23(1.10,1.38) 0.58(0.52,0.65) 0.60(0.55,0.66) 0.84(0.75,0.95) 0.41(0.36,0.46)  
 Most deprived (> 80th centile) 1.07(0.99,1.17) 1.53(1.37,1.72) 0.71(0.63,0.79) 0.68(0.62,0.74) 0.96(0.85,1.08) 0.45(0.40,0.51)  
Maternal age (baseline: 26–35 years)
 ≤ 25 years 1.35(1.28,1.42) 1.29(1.21,1.38) 1.43(1.33,1.54) 1.42(1.35,1.51) 1.41(1.31,1.51) 1.46(1.35,1.59)  
 36 and above 1.19(1.11,1.28) 1.18(1.08,1.30) 1.20(1.08,1.33) 1.07(0.99,1.15) 1.07(0.98,1.18) 1.08(0.97,1.20)  
Maternal smoking (baseline: non-smoking) 1.10(1.04,1.17) 1.14(1.06,1.23) 1.04(0.96,1.14) 1.09(1.03,1.17) 1.17(1.08,1.27) 1.00(0.91,1.09)  
Parity (baseline: first born)
  Second 0.73(0.69,0.78) 0.92(0.85,0.98) 0.56(0.51,0.60) 0.79(0.75,0.84) 1.00(0.93,1.07) 0.59(0.55,0.64)  
  Third 0.85(0.79,0.91) 1.21(1.11,1.32) 0.49(0.44,0.55) 0.96(0.89,1.03) 1.34(1.22,1.46) 0.58(0.51,0.65)  
  Fourth or higher 1.36(1.27,1.47) 1.87(1.71,2.05) 0.87(0.78,0.98) 1.65(1.52,1.79) 2.13(1.93,2.35) 1.16(1.03,1.31)  
Marriage status (baseline: married/civil partners)
  Never married 1.69(1.55,1.84) 1.58(1.42,1.75) 1.88(1.66,2.14) 1.75(1.60,1.93) 1.77(1.58,1.99) 1.74(1.52,2.00)  
  Divorced/separated/widowed 1.20(1.11,1.28) 1.23(1.12,1.34) 1.15(1.04,1.28) 1.26(1.16,1.37) 1.37(1.24,1.51) 1.12(0.99,1.25)  
  Unknown 0.99(0.93,1.05) 0.95(0.88,1.03) 1.05(0.97,1.15) 1.01(0.95,1.08) 1.03(0.94,1.11) 1.00(0.91,1.09)  
Migrant status (non-UK born)        1.65 (1.46,1.87)
  1. *Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) of late antenatal booking and relative risk ratio (RRR, 95% CI) of moderately and extreme late booking for each potential exposure variable. Unadjusted models included delivery year
  2. **Adjusted models. Model 1 included delivery year and all the exposure variables considered (n= 44, 809). Model 2 included all variables in Model 1, plus mothers’ migrant status (n=20,100)