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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Facilitators and barriers influencing weight management behaviours during pregnancy: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research

Authors Country Aims Data collection method Recruitment Number of participants Age Pregnancy status BMI required for participation Timing of data collection Method of data analysis CASP score
Denison et al. (2015) [29] UK To explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity and lifestyle interventions in pregnant women with Class III obesity (BMI >40kg/m2) Semi-structured interviews Purposive-sampling from a specialist-led clinic providing care to pregnant women with class III obesity. 13 25-34 years Pregnant Class III obesity (>40kg/m2) 17-37 weeks gestation Framework approach 17
Ferrari et al. (2013) [30] USA Elicit from pregnant women their perceptions about provider advice regarding diet and physical activity in pregnancy. Focus groups Sample was part of a larger study. Recruited through newspaper ads, posted flyers and prenatal clinics. 58 18-35 years Pregnant  N/A 27-30 weeks gestation Thematic analysis 16
Faucher et al. (2020) [31] UK Identify beliefs and attitudes about GWG, exercise, and proposed intervention Focus groups Women were recruited with flyers and HCP approaches in their birth centres 17 17-35 Pregnant Pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or greater <14 to 38 weeks gestation Content Analysis 15
Flannery et al. (2020) [32] Ireland Explore overweight and obese women's experience and perception of dietary behaviours and weight management during pregnancy Semi-structured interviews Women with a BMI of 25 or higher were identified and recruited in a maternity hospital 30 20-40+ Pregnant Between 20 and 40km/m2 Across all trimesters but most women between 27 and 40 weeks gestation. Thematic analysis 19
Flannery et al. (2018) [33] Ireland Systematically identify the barriers and enablers to physical activity for women who are overweight and obese in pregnancy using the TDF and COM-B model. Semi-structured interviews Purposive-sampling of women with BMI ≥25kg/m2 in the public antenatal clinic of one maternity hospital. 30   Pregnant BMI ≥25kg/m2 Across all trimesters Framework approach with inductive thematic analysis 16
Garnweidner et al. (2013) [34] Norway To explore experiences with nutrition related information in routine antenatal care of an ethnically and socially diverse study population. Semi-structured interviews Recruited by midwives in eight mother and child health centres in Oslo. 17 average 28 years old Pregnant and postpartum Pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25kg/m2 Before the 30th week of pregnancy and two months afterwards Interpretative phenomenological analysis 16
Groth et al. (2013) [35] USA Understand how urban, low income, pregnant African American women view physical activity and how they approach nutrition while pregnant. Focus groups Recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) services and prenatal clinic waiting rooms 26 18-39 years Pregnant  N/A Over 60% in their first 20 weeks of pregnancy Content analysis 15
Holton et al. (2017) [36] Australia Describe women's experiences and perspectives of care for weight management during pregnancy in Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews Recruited from Medical Centre using purposive recruitment strategies inc. Flyers and direct approaches from researchers 17 24-43 years (32.6 average) Pregnant and postnatal  N/A Late pregnancy (≥28 weeks gestation) and 4-6 weeks after giving birth. Thematic analysis 15
Keely et al. (2017) [37] UK To explore the experiences, attitudes and health-related behaviours of pregnant women with a BMI >40kg/m2 Semi-structured interviews Purposeful sampling in a specialist antenatal clinic for women with BMI >40kg/m2. 11 26-40 years Pregnant and postnatal Pregnant women with BMI ≥40kg/m2 2 interviews during pregnancy and 1 postnatally Thematic content analysis 15
Kominiarek et al. (2015) [28] USA To examine and describe obese racial-ethnic minority women's knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about nutrition, exercise, and healthy lifestyles during pregnancy. Focus-groups Recruited at Women’s health clinic via recruitment flyers or recruited by study personnel. 16 21-39  Pregnant Prepregnancy BMI ≥30kg/m2 Across all trimesters Conventional qualitative data analysis (Thematic analysis) 17
Lee et al. (2018)* [38] Australia To assess and compare pregnancy nutrition recommendation knowledge and to explore how nutrition knowledge impacts on food choices in pregnant women and nutrition education practices of antenatal care providers. Semi-structured interviews Convenient sample from eligible pool of pregnant women attending the hospital for antenatal care. .  19 <30 to 40+ Pregnant   N/A Across all trimesters, 45% women last trimester Thematic analysis 15
Leiferman et al. (2011) [39] USA To elucidate unique barriers and facilitators to antenatal physical activity engagement among women of low socioeconomic status. Individual and paired interviews Passive print advertisement Via health care clinics and community organisations 25 18-46 Yes  N/A Second and third trimester Thematic analysis 15
Marquez et al. (2009) [40] USA To understand how Latina women perceived, understood, and valued exercise to inform a physical activity intervention designed. Focus groups Purposive sampling waiting room at the time of patients pre-natal appointments by bilingual/bicultural interviewers. 20  18 to 40 Yes N/A <28 weeks gestation Content analysis 15
O'Brien et al. (2017) [41] Ireland To explore the various factors within the life course that overweight and obese pregnant women perceive to influence their food choice and physical activity behaviours. semi-structured in depth interviews Purposive sampling from patients attending the ODP 22 Mean 32.3 Yes BMI ranging between 25kg/m2 and 39.9kg/m2 34th week of pregnancy Inductive thematic analysis 16
Padmanabhan et al. (2015) [42] UK Examine pregnant women's weight-related attitudes and beliefs (including the weight-related behaviours of diet and physical activity during pregnancy). Semi-structured face to face interviews All participants were previously recruited to a prospective quantitative longitudinal study via invitation letters and participation information sheets. 19 19-38 years Yes N/A Third trimester systematic thematic content analysis 16
Reyes et al. (2013) [43] USA Understand the perceptions of low-income, overweight, and obese, African-American mothers about diet quality in pregnancy, specifically focused on what facilitators and barriers exist to eating healthy. Semi-structured, individual interviews Waiting room of a single university-affiliated outpatient prenatal care clinic, serving primarily Medicaid-insured patients. 21 ≥18 Yes Excluded in BMI <25 All trimesters in pregnancy Principles of grounded theory 16
Sui et al. (2013)* [44] Australia Describe overweight and obese pregnant women's views about making healthy behavioural changes during pregnancy. Face-to-face interviews Purposeful sample of women participating in larger study. 26 not specified Yes Criteria of larger study. 28 weeks gestation Framework analytical approach 16
  1. *Mixed-methods studies