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Table 2 Association between selected indicators and MMR based on average values reported during 2011–2015, using linear regression

From: Maternal mortality in the Middle East and North Africa region – how could countries move towards obstetric transition stage 5?

  Pearson Correlation Coefficient Univariable
Linear
regression
Multivariable linear regression adjusted for “GDP per capita” Multivariable linear regression adjusted for “Nursing & midwifery personnel”
  R Mean Square
(p-value)
Adjusted Mean Square (p-value) Adjusted Mean
Square (p-value)
GDP (US$)a −0.90 39.5 (<.0001) 6.53 (0.0005)
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel −0.79 8.57 (0.001) 0.23 (0.46) 0.83 (0.29)
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years old, any method −0.58 4.59 (0.046) 1.04 (0.09) 2.17 (0.08)
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years old, modern methods −0.57 4.45 (0.051) 0.88 (0.13) 1.99 (0.09)
Adolescent birth rate 0.55 4.50 (0.13) 0.17 (0.53) 0.04 (0.82)
Antenatal care coverage (At least one visit) −0.71 7.80 (0.004) 0.76 (0.15) 1.26 (0.18)
Antenatal care coverage (At least four visits) −0.79 7.27 (0.002) 0.55 (0.24) 0.26 (0.55)
Unmet need for family planning, total 0.68 4.23 (0.03) 0.41 (0.33) 1.15 (0.22)
Unmet need for family planning, spacing 0.60 3.36 (0.07) 0.92 (0.14) 1.65 (0.13)
Unmet need for family planning, limiting 0.69 4.42 (0.03) 0.07 (0.68) 0.61 (0.37)
Gender Parity Index in primary school enrolment −0.73 14.4 (0.0009) 0.79 (0.19) 1.56 (0.14)
Gender Parity Index in secondary school enrolment −0.72 13.5 (0.0002) 0.42 (0.32) 0.88 (0.28)
Gender Parity Index in tertiary level school enrolment −0.48 7.36 (0.046) 1.64 (0.05) 0.41 (0.47)
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 0.44 1.34 (0.24) 0.17 (0.54) 0.42 (0.46)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 0.39 7.20 (0.08) 0.07 (0.69) 0.64 (0.35)
Nursing and midwifery personnel −0.85 34.7 (<.0001) 1.36 (0.07)
Medical doctors −0.81 31.5 (<.0001) 2.34 (0.01) 2.35 (0.06)
Motor vehicle ownership −0.81 31.9 (<.0001) 0.28 (0.43) 3.59 (0.02)
Motorization rate 2014–15 −0.74 21.0 (0.0001) 0.76 (0.19) 0.83 (0.27)
  1. a Log-transformed values
  2. Mean squares and p-value are obtained from univariable and multivariable linear regression models adjusted for GDP or Nursing and midwifery personnel