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Table 1 Association between selected indicators and obstetric stage (average values reported during 2011–2015)

From: Maternal mortality in the Middle East and North Africa region – how could countries move towards obstetric transition stage 5?

  # of countries with available data Stages IV&V
(MMR < 5 &5–50)
Stage III
(MMR 50–299)
Stage II
(MMR 300–999)
Test for linear trend
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-value
MENA COUNTRIES, n 23 11 8 4  
GDP per capita, US$ 23 23,773 ± 23,588 3515 ± 1746 1005 ± 651 < 0.0001
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel, % 13 97 ± 3.8 85 ± 18.9 42 ± 4.2 0.002
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years, any method, % 12 57.7 ± 19.5 50.3 ± 17.2 27.5 ± 9.2 0.09
Contraceptive use among married women 15–49 years, modern methods, % 12 49.3 ± 13.3 39.0 ± 14.1 22.5 ± 3.5 0.05
Adolescent birth rate, per 1000 women 9 23.3 ± 18.3 9.2 ± 3.4 67.0 0.05
Antenatal care coverage (At least one visit), % 14 94.3 ± 4.4 86.6 ± 10.6 62.3 ± 15.6 0.002
Antenatal care coverage (At least four visits), % 12 87.7 ± 7.2 58.7 ± 25.3 33.0 ± 25.5 0.03
Unmet need for family planning, total, % 10 10.3 ± 3.8 11.3 ± 4.6 29.0 0.008
Unmet need for family planning, spacing, % 10 5.0 ± 1.7 5.3 ± 2.0 15.0 0.003
Unmet need for family planning, limiting, % 10 5.0 ± 3.0 6.2 ± 2.9 14.0 0.03
Gender Parity Index in primary school enrolment, girls/boys ratio 17 0.99 ± 0.05 0.94 ± 0.04 0.81 ± 0.09 0.0004
Gender Parity Index in secondary school enrolment, girls/boys ratio 18 1.01 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.13 0.71 ± 0.19 0.002
Gender Parity Index in tertiary level school enrolment, girls/boys ratio 18 1.96 ± 1.75 1.15 ± 0.35 0.62 ± 0.42 0.15
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector, % 9 16.5 ± 3.5 20.6 ± 4.8 0.18
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament, % 22 7.1 ± 6.1 18.8 ± 6.4 15.9 ± 12.6 0.07
Nursing and midwifery personnel, per 10,000 population 22 41.5 ± 20.2 16.7 ± 9.3 5.3 ± 0.6 0.0007
Medical doctors, per 10,000 population 22 18.0 ± 6.3 11.7 ± 6.4 2.6 ± 1.6 0.0003
Motor vehicle ownership, per 1000 population 23 315 ± 181 80 ± 51 23 ± 14 0.001
Motorization rate 2014–15, per 1000 population 21 259 ± 155 142 ± 104 29 ± 25 0.01