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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Factors of the childbirth fear among nulliparous women in Iran

Author, year Study purpose Type of study Sample size Tool County Results STROBE checklist score
Taheri et al. 2015 [29] To investigate the causes of FOC in pregnant women in Shahrekord Cross-sectional 130 FOC Questionnaire Shahrekord The main causes of FOC in pregnant women were fear of painful injections during labor, suturing in childbirth, labor pain, and loss of control during labor 22
Khorsandi et al. (2014) [30] To investigate the causes and factors related to natural childbirth among pregnant women who attended prenatal care of Arak Cross-sectional 595 Lowe Questionnaire Arak The most common causes of fear were possible harm to the baby, baby infirmity, and labor pain, respectively 30
Farajzad touli et al. (2018) [31] To assess prevalence and causes of FOC in primiparous pregnant women Cross-sectional 181 Harman Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire Talesh The most common cause of FOC was harm to the baby. Fear of baby infirmity and fear of labor was in the second and third ranks 34
Matinnia et al. (2015) [32] To examine the content of maternal fear and the associated demographic factors in a sample of Iranian primigravidae Cross-sectional 342 FOC Questionnaire Hamedan The most frequent factor for all the respondents was 'fear related to the process of labor and childbirth'
These factors were included labor pain, vaginal rupturing, being injured during childbirth, losing one's own life during childbirth, an unpredictable problem during childbirth, prolonged labor, and delivery, and ending up with emergency interventions
Andaroon et al. (2017) [33] To determine the relationship between the intensity of FOC and choosing the type of childbirth in primiparous women Cross-sectional 220 Wijma FOC Questionnaire Mashhad The most common cause of FOC was fear of labor pain 28
Negahban et al. (2009) [34] To assess the relationship between fears from vaginal delivery with the occurrence of emergency cesarean in primiparous women Cross-sectional 243 Structured Questionnaire Rafsanjan The most mentioned reasons for FOC were labor pain and harm to the baby, respectively 24