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Table 3 Prevalence of elective and emergency c-section deliveries and estimates from multivariable logistic regression analysis by background characteristics in Bangladesh, 2017–18

From: Prevalence and predictors of elective and emergency caesarean delivery among reproductive-aged women in Bangladesh: evidence from demographic and health survey, 2017–18

Background characteristics Elective c-section Emergency c-section
% AOR [95% CI] % AOR [95% CI]
Women’s age (in years)
 15–19 12.1 Ref 18.4 Ref
 20–24 19.4 1.23(0.87 -1.73) 15.1 1.04(0.74 -1.44)
 25–29 19.3 0.83(0.53 -1.28) 12.2 1.43(0.91 -2.23)
 30–49 22.4 0.89(0.53 -1.50) 11.1 1.65(0.95 -2.86)
Women’s educational level
 Not educated 7.8 Ref 8.7 Ref
 Primary 9.1 0.86(0.48 -1.56) 8.8 0.71(0.40 -1.27)
 Secondary 18.5 1.03(0.58 -1.83) 15.6 0.63(0.36 -1.11)
 Higher 39.1 1.44(0.78 -2.69) 20.6 0.44**(0.24 -0.83)
Women’s work status
 Not working 21.5 Ref 15.8 Ref
 Working 13.8 0.59***(0.50 -0.68) 11.2 0.70**(0.59 -0.83)
Women’s Mass media exposure
 No Exposure 7.5 Ref 9.6 Ref
 Exposure 24.7 1.32**(1.02 -1.72) 16.5 0.94(0.72 -1.22)
Women’s Body Mass Index
 Underweight 13.0 1.06(0.79 -1.41) 12.7 0.92(0.69 -1.24)
 Normal 16.4 Ref 12.8 Ref
 Overweight or Obese 31.8 1.21(0.97 -1.51) 18.5 1.05(0.83 -1.33)
Partner’s education
 No Education 8.1 Ref 10.1 Ref
 Primary 10.9 0.99(0.66 -1.48) 11.2 0.75(0.5 -1.11)
 Secondary 19.7 1.10(0.73 -1.67) 15.6 0.72(0.48 -1.07)
 Higher 40.0 1.46(0.92 -2.32) 20.0 0.60(0.38 -1.05)
Partner’s occupation
 Unemployed 18.5 Ref 13.5 Ref
 Professional/Technical/Managerial 39.7 0.89(0.43 -1.86) 22.6 1.38(0.65 -2.93)
 Sales 24.0 1.39(0.69 -2.81) 13.7 0.81(0.39 -1.66)
 Agricultural 10.9 1.20(0.58 -2.47) 9.9 1.09(0.53 -2.25)
 Services 17.9 1.16(0.57 -2.38) 17.0 1.34(0.65 -2.75)
 Skilled And Unskilled 15.9 1.01(0.51 -2.01) 13.6 1.17(0.59 -2.35)
Women’s age at first birth (in years)
  < 18 12.6 Ref 12.2 Ref
 18–20 18.1 1.14(0.88 -1.47) 13.7 0.90(0.69 -1.18)
 21–24 27.6 1.58***(1.14 -2.2) 17.9 0.77(0.54 -1.1)
  > 25 46.1 2.75***(1.67 -4.55) 21.4 0.53**(0.31 -0.92)
Birth order
 First 18.8 Ref 21.5 Ref
 2nd order 23.2 2.58***(1.94 -3.43) 11.2 0.39***(0.29 -0.54)
 3 or more 13.5 2.67***(1.75 -4.05) 7.3 0.29***(0.18 -0.45)
ANC visits
 No visit 3.4 Ref 2.6 Ref
 1–3 visits 12.8 1.23(0.54 -2.81) 10.9 1.57(0.65 -3.77)
 4 or more 27.3 1.51(0.66 -3.47) 19.6 1.78(0.74 -4.3)
Multiple births     
 Single 18.2 Ref 14.2 Ref
 Multiple 40.9 1.55(0.74 -3.25) 9.2 0.84(0.35 -1.99)
Place of delivery
 Public 18.9 Ref 16.3 Ref
 Private 45.3 2.91***(2.31 -3.65) 33.3 3.23***(2.5 -4.17)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 6.0 Ref 7.0 Ref
 Poorer 10.6 1.12(0.74 -1.7) 11.7 1.22(0.82 -1.81)
 Middle 14.7 1.05(0.69 -1.59) 16.2 1.33(0.89 -2)
 Richer 22.9 1.22(0.8 -1.85) 15.3 0.99(0.65 -1.51)
 Richest 40.5 1.64**(1.04 -2.6) 21.0 1.09(0.68 -1.73)
Place of residence
 Urban 27.0 0.92(0.74 -1.15) 16.9 0.90(0.71 -1.13)
 Rural 15.7 Ref 13.1 Ref
Division
 Barisal 14.3 Ref 10.2 Ref
 Chittagong 15.1 0.62**(0.41 -0.93) 11.0 0.98(0.63 -1.52)
 Dhaka 25.6 0.95(0.64 -1.42) 17.1 1.17(0.76 -1.81)
 Khulna 23.7 0.91(0.61 -1.38) 19.0 1.32(0.85 -2.04)
 Mymensingh 13.7 0.91(0.58 -1.4) 12.3 1.31(0.83 -2.09)
 Rajshahi 18.7 0.81(0.53 -1.23) 16.9 1.29(0.83 -2.02)
 Rangpur 15.7 0.67(0.44 -1.04) 12.2 0.94(0.59 -1.5)
 Sylhet 12.6 0.86(0.55 -1.34) 10.0 1.27(0.79 -2.04)
  1. C-section Caesarean section, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval; ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.05; ANC Ante-natal care, Ref Reference the logistic regression estimates are controlled for all the background characteristics