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Table 2 Health Behaviors and Outcomes associated with Cell Phone Ownership (n = 174). Effect estimate is Odds of Outcome predicted by Cell Phone Ownership (Yes vs No(ref))

From: Exploring association of mobile phone access with positive health outcomes and behaviors amongst post-partum mothers in rural Malawi

Behavior/Outcome Owns Cell Phone
(n = 79)
Does not Own a Cell Phone
(n = 95)
  Total
(n = 174)
Crude
Odds Ratio, 95% CI
Education-adjusted
Odds Ratio, 95% CI
Number of Antenatal Visits for current child’s pregnancy
Range 1–8
Mean 3.9 (± 1.09 SD)
 ≥ 4 visits 50 (63.3%) 67 (70.5%) (p = 0.31) 117 (67.2%) 0.72 (0.38–1.36; p = 0.31) 0.69 (0.36–1.32; p = 0.26)
 ≤ 3 visits (ref) 29 (36.7%) 28 (29.5%)   57 (32.8%)
Exclusively Breastfeeding current child
Yes 3 (4.5%) 12 (15.2%)   15 (10.3%) 0.26 (0.07–0.97; p = 0.045)* 0.25 (0.07–0.92; p = 0.038)*
No (ref) 64 (95.5%) 67 (84.8%) (p = 0.03)* 131 (89.7%)
Missing** 12 (15.2%) 16 (16.8%)   28 (16.1%)
Knows to exclusively breastfeeding for at least 6 months)
Yes 69 (87.3%) 78 (82.1%)   147 (84.5%) 1.50 (0.65–3.50; p = 0.34) 1.35 (0.57–3.21; p = 0.50)
No (ref) 10 (12.7%) 17 (17.9%) (p = 0.34) 27 (15.5%)
Problems with Breastfeeding in last 4 weeks)
Yes 33 (41.8%) 33 (34.7%) (p = 0.34) 66 (37.9%) 1.35 (0.73–2.50; p = 0.34) 1.31 (0.70–2.50; p = 0.40)
No (ref) 46 (58.2%) 62 (65.3%)   108 (62.1%)
Discussed Breastfeeding problems with healthcare provider (amongst those with problems only, n = 66)
  n = 33 n = 33   66   
Yes 11 (35.5%) 12 (37.5%)   23 (36.5%) 0.92 (0.33–2.56; p = 0.87) 0.75 (0.26–2.21; p = 0.60)
No (ref) 20 (64.5%) 20 (62.5%) (p = 0.87) 40 (63.5%)
Missing** 2 (6.5%) 1 (3.1%)   3 (4.5%)
In last 4 weeks, child has had any diarrhea, cough with trouble breathing, malaria or fever
Yes 63 (79.8%) 70 (73.7%) (p = 0.35) 133 (76.4%) 1.41 (0.69–2.87; p = 0.35) 1.38 (0.67–2.86; p = 0.39)
No (ref) 16 (20.3%) 25 (26.3%)   41 (23.6%)
Sought treatment for child’s illness (amongst those with problems only, n = 133)
  n = 63 n = 70   133   
Yes 50 (79.4%) 51 (72.9%) (p = 0.38) 101(75.9%) 1.43 (0.64–3.21; p = 0.38) 1.31 (0.57–3.00; p = 0.52)
No (ref) 13 (20.6%) 19 (27.1%)   32 (24.1%)
Depressive Symptoms in post-partum period
Yes, meets clinical depression cutoff
(score ≥ 8 on SRQ)
14 (17.7%) 20 (21.1%) (p = 0.58) 34 (19.5%) 0.81 (0.38–1.73; p = 0.58) 0.84 (0.39–1.84; p = 0.67)
No, does not meet clinical depression cutoff on SRQ
(score < 8) (ref)
65 (82.3%) 75 (79.0%)   140 (80.5%)
Involved in any Motherhood Support Groups
Yes 47 (60.3%) 56 (59.0%)   103 (59.5%) 1.06 (0.57–1.94; p = 0.86) 1.14 (0.61–2.13; p = 0.70)
No (ref) 31 (39.7%) 39 (41.1%) (p = 0.86) 70 (40.5%)
Missing** 1(1.3%) 0 (0.0%)   1 (0.6%)
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05 level
  2. **Missing not included in effect estimates