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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of study participants, stratified by cell phone ownership (n = 174)

From: Exploring association of mobile phone access with positive health outcomes and behaviors amongst post-partum mothers in rural Malawi

Demographic Characteristic Owns Cell Phone
(n = 79)
Does not Own a Cell Phone
(n = 95)
Total Participants
(n = 174)
Maternal Age group (p = 0.57)
Range 16-60yrs
Mean 25.4 (± 7.5 SD)
 Adolescent (16–19) 20 (25.3%) 19 (20%) 39 (22.4%)
 Young Twenties (20–29) 32 (40.5%) 43(45.3%) 75 (43.1%)
 Older (≥ 30) 22 (27.8%) 32 (33.7%) 54 (31.0%)
 Missing 5 (6.3%) 1 (1.1%) 7 (4.0%)
Married (p = 0.98)
 Yes 65 (82.3%) 78 (82.1%) 143 (82.0%)
 No 14 (17.7%) 17 (17.9%) 31 (18.0%)
Current Child Age group (p = 0.56)
Range 123–180 days
Mean 147.1 (± 14.3 SD)
  ≤ 151 days (≤ 4 months) 50 (63.3%) 56 (58.95%) 106 (60.9%)
  > 151 days (> 4 months) 29 (36.7%) 39 (41.05%) 68 (39.1%)
Number of living children (p = 0.96)
Range 1–8
Mean 2.7 (± 1.8 SD)
  < 3 children 46 (58.2%) 55 (57.9%) 101(58.0%)
  ≥ 3 children 33 (41.8%) 40 (42.1%) 73 (42.0%)
Maternal Education Level (p = 0.006)*
 High Level of Education (US middle school or greater (standard 6 to form 4)) 59 (74.7%) 52 (54.7%) 111 (63.8%)
 Lower Level of Education (US elementary to no formal education (Standard 1 to 5 or no formal education)) 20 (25.3%) 43 (45.3%) 63 (36.2%)
Household wealth (p < 0.001)*
Range 0–6.7
Mean 0.4 (± 0.71 SD)
 High Household wealtha 45 (57.0%) 16 (16.8%) 61 (35.0%)
 Low Household wealtha 34 (43.0%) 79 (83.2%) 113 (65.0%)
Household size (p = 0.18)
Range 1–15
Mean 5.0 (± 2.0 SD)
  ≤ 4 in household 31 (39.2%) 47 (49.5%) 78 (44.8%)
  > 4 in household 48 (60.8%) 48 (50.5%) 96 (55.2%)
Food Insecurity Score (p = 0.09)
Range 0–31
Mean 10.4 (± 8.1 SD)
 High (Score ≥ 9 on HFIAS) 34 (43.0%) 53 (55.8%) 87 (50.0%)
 Low (Score < 9 on HFIAS) 45 (57.0%) 42 (44.2%) 87 (50.0%)
  1. aHigh household wealth defined as a score greater than 0.32, and low household wealth defined as 0.32 or lower on the scale [20]
  2. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05 level