Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of findings

From: Use of non-pharmacological methods in managing labour pain: experiences of nurse-midwives in two selected district hospitals in eastern Tanzania

Selected codes Sub-categories Categories
• Telling women to change lying positions
• Instructions to women to open mouths and take a deep breath
• Encourage movements like walking
Encouragements and instructions on exercises, position changing and deep mouth breathing Non-pharmacological approaches used by nurse-midwives in managing labour pain
• Talking to women about labour prepares their mind
• Telling women are going to deliver safely
• Telling women to tolerate pain
Providing psychological support
• Rubbing women back
• Massaging women`s backs when not busy
• Massaging a woman`s back when in contraction
Performing a back massage
• Doing what one`s love doing
• Motivation from my heart
• The desire comes from my inner heart
Nurse-midwives intrinsic motivation Facilitators for using non-pharmacological methods in managing labour pain
• Knowing the NPMs
• Women appreciations
• Experience in using the methods
The comfort of nurse-midwives on using the methods
• NPMs relief pain
• Raise women`s confidence
• Reduces incidence of fetal distress
Understanding the usefulness and benefits of using NPMs
• The absence of labour is a sign of poor progress
• Relieving pain cause a delay to give birth
• Pain is viewed as necessary for a baby to come out
Misconceptions about labour pain relief Myths and fears related to using non-pharmacological strategies to relieve labour pains
• Women feel disturbed
• Women do not accept
• Women never follow our instructions
Women may be uncomfortable with the methods
• The baby may fall
• The baby may fall on the floor
Fear of baby falling