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Table 2 Summary of Barriers to and Facilitators of Effective Communication

From: Barriers to and facilitators of effective communication in perinatal care: a qualitative study of the experiences of birthing people with sensory, intellectual, and/or developmental disabilities

Theme Definition
Barriers to Effective Communication
 Lack of Policies and Guidelines Lack of institutional policies and guidelines on communication accommodations/access in primary perinatal care and community care settings and in turn failure to provide communication accommodations and recognize barrier-free communication as a right
 Lack of Provider Experience Providers’ lack of experience working with and knowledge about people with disabilities and their communication needs
 Lack of Provider Effort Providers’ lack of effort to tailor or adapt information (or the delivery of information) to patients’ disability-related communication needs
 Ableism and Provider Assumptions Providers’ negative assumptions about patients’ disabilities and their communication needs
Facilitators of Effective Communication
 Knowledgeable, Aware, and Supportive Providers Providers who were knowledgeable, aware, and supportive concerning patients’ disabilities and their communication needs
 Access to Communication Aids and Services Provision or accessibility of ASL interpreters, braille resources, and alerting devices (e.g., auditory devices for blind/low vision persons and vibrating devices for d/Deaf persons)
 Information Tailored to Patients’ Disability-related Communication Needs Providers who tailored information (or the delivery of information) to meet patients’ disability-related communication needs
 Empathic Communication Providers who carefully listened to and understood patients’ needs and accommodated disability-related needs without fixating on them
 Communication among Providers Communication among health and social service providers about patients’ disability-related communication needs