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Table 4 The results of the generalized estimating equations for the effects of midwife-led counselling program on fear of childbirth and general self-efficacy

From: The effect of midwifery-led counseling on expectant fathers’ fear of childbirth: a smartphone- based randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Time β SE 95% Wald Confidence Interval P-value
Lower Upper
Fear of childbirth Intervention vs. control group −11.84 5.13 −21.90 −1.78 0.021
Post intervention −6.66 1.38 −9.36 −3.95 <  0.001
One-month follow-up −4.17 1.18 −6.49 −1.85 <  0.001
General self-efficacy Intervention vs. control group 2.07 1.43 −0.74 4.89 0.150
Post intervention 0.86 0.57 −0.26 1.98 0.134
One-month follow-up 1.43 0.58 0.28 2.58 0.014