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Table 3 Mean, standard deviation, effect size of fear of childbirth and self-efficacy

From: The effect of midwifery-led counseling on expectant fathers’ fear of childbirth: a smartphone- based randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Time Groups Comparison between groups MDb; P-Value Effect size (Cohen’s d), (95% CIc)
Intervention Mean (SDa) Control Mean (SDa)
Fear of childbirth Baseline 60.84 (6.26) 60.12 (7.54) 0.72; 0.614
Post intervention 49.80 (9.57) 57.84 (13.07) −8.04; 0.017 0.70 (0.13;1.27)
One-month follow-up 53.50 (8.88) 57.96 (10.63) −4.46; 0.114 0.45 (0.10;1.01)
General self-efficacy Baseline 25.56 (5.97) 25.68 (4.87) −0.12; 0.855
Post intervention 28.60 (6.72) 24.36 (3.97) 4.24; 0.009 0.76 (−1.34; 0.19)
One-month follow-up 28.27 (6.58) 25.75 (5.24) 2.52; 0.142 0.42 (−0.98;0.13)
  1. aStandard Deviation
  2. bMean Difference
  3. cConfidence Interval