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Table 4 Studies on the impact of COVID-19 on IPV during pregnancy

From: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes: a scoping review of the literature from low-and-middle income countries from 2016 - 2021

Author and year Country Sample size (n) and setting Setting and timing What the study wants to determine Association between outcome and social support
Naghizadeh, Mirghafourvand [39] Iran 250
Cross sectional
Outpatient
5–8/2020
The prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with the quality of life of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic • About 1 in 3 women experienced domestic violence.
• Violence victims had significant lower quality of life in the mental health compared to unaffected women: β = 9.3 (3.5 to 15.0), P = 0.002)
Teshome, Gudu [42] Ethiopia 464
Cross sectional
Outpatient
8–11/2020
The incidence and predictors of IPV during pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic • 7.1% women experienced IPV during pregnancy
• IPV during pregnancy was more reported among women who husbands consume Khat [aOR = 3.27 (1.45–7.38)] or alcohol [aOR = 1.52 (1.01–2.28)]
Abujilban, Mrayan [33] Jordan 215
Cross sectional (online survey)
Community
4/2020
The change in the incidence of IPV during pregnancy before and during the COVID-19 pandemic The pre-pandemic level of IPV during pregnancy was higher than that during the pandemic (Before: 65.1%, 30.7%, and 15.3%, for psychological, physical, and sexual violence, respectively. During: 50.2%, 13%, 11.2%, respectively).
Abrahams, Boisits [32] South Africa 885
Cross sectional
(Telephone interview)
Outpatient
6–7/2020
The relationship between common mental disorders, food insecurity and IPV during pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic Higher odds of common mental disorders were associated with IPV during pregnancy during the pandemic:
• Psychological IPV: aOR = 2.50 (1.32–4.72)
• Sexual IPV: 2.70 (1.07–6.80)
  1. aOR adjusted odd ratio. The range of aOR in the parenthesis in the 95% CI of the aOR