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Table 3 Studies on the impact of social support on IPV during pregnancy (with adjustment of confounders)

From: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes: a scoping review of the literature from low-and-middle income countries from 2016 - 2021

Author and year Country Sample size (n) and setting Outcome Association with risk of outcome
Quasi-experimental study
  Bhushan, Krupp [44] India,
community - based
480
Quasi-experimental study
Antenatal anxiety Home visit or accompaniment to antenatal care by ASHAa significantly associated with lower odds of outcome.
• Home visits: aPR = 0.90 (0.76–0.98).
• Accompaniment to antenatal care: aPR = 0.86 (0.78–0.95).
Cross sectional and other studies
  Manongi, Rogathi [38] Tanzania,
outpatient
1,116
Cross sectional
Antenatal depression Emotional support from outside family significantly associated with higher odd of outcome: [aOR = 2.25 (1.26, 4.02)] compared with emotional support from inside family.
  Woldetensay, Belachew [46] Ethiopia 4,680
Community – based
Baseline data from a prospective,
quasi-experimental cohort study
Antenatal depressive symptoms Poor social support from friends, families and husband significantly associated with higher odds of outcome: aOR = 1.63 (1.31–2.02).
  Nguyen, Ngo [41] Vietnam 1309
Community – based
Cross-sectional study nested within a larger prospective cohort study
IPV during pregnancy Lack of social support significantly associated with higher odds of:
• One - time IPV: aOR = 3.1 (2.4–3.9).
• Multiple times: aOR = 2.9 (2.2–3.8).
  Nasreen, Rahman [40] Malaysia,
outpatient
904
Cross sectional
Antenatal depression and anxiety Moderate support [aOR = 0.16 (0.03–0.73)] and high support [aOR = 0.13 (0.03–0.59)] significantly associated with lower odds of depression.
Anxiety: family support significantly associated with higher odds: aOR = 1.07 (1.03–1.13).
  Woldetsadik, Ayele [43] Ethiopia,
community - based
743
Cross sectional
Antenatal common mental disorders No significant association between social support or husband support and the outcome.
  Navarrete, Nieto [47] Mexico 210
Outpatient
Antenatal depressive
and anxiety symptoms
When social support was introduced into the regression model, the impact of IPV during pregnancy was nullified (odd of depression) or reduced (odd of anxiety)b.
  1. aOR adjusted odd ratio, aPR adjusted prevalence ratio, The range of aOR/aPR in the parenthesis in the 95% CI of the aOR/aPR
  2. aAccredited Social Health Activists. bThis research is a prospective cohort study but only cross-sectional data obtained during pregnancy is used in this review