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Table 2 Studies reporting associations between IPV during pregnancy and child health (with adjustment of confounders)

From: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes: a scoping review of the literature from low-and-middle income countries from 2016 - 2021

Author and year Country Sample size (n) and setting Outcome Association with outcome
Prospective cohort studies
  Dolatian, Mahmoodi [28] Iran 400 Birthweight IPV has indirect effect on birthweight in the path analysis of the model:
B= − 0.016
  Nguyen, Ngo [29] Vietnam 1,276 Low birthweight and gestational age • Physical IPV significantly associated with higher odd of preterm birth: aOR = 5.5 (2.1–14.1).
• Physical IPV significantly associated with higher odd of low birth weight: aOR = 5.7 (2.2–14.9).
  Ribeiro, Batista [30] Brazil 1,146 Breastfeeding The higher HR of not being breastfed within the first year of life was significantly associated with:
• Violence (by partners/family members) before/during pregnancy increased: HR = 1.39 (1.03–1.88)
• Recurrent physical/emotional/sexual violence during pregnancy: HR = 1.46 (1.11–1.92)
Cross sectional studies
  Laelago, Belachew [37] Ethiopia 183
Low birth weight All IPV: aOR = 14.3 (5.1–40.7)
  Lobato, Reichenheim [8] Brazil 810
Intrauterine growth restriction Psychological IPV: aOR = 1.15 (1.07–1.23)
  Kana, Safiyan [36] Nigeria 293
Low birth weight Physical, psychological and sexual IPV were all significantly associated to higher risk.
Case control study
  Wondimye, Bezatu [45] Ethiopia 103 cases and 412 controls
Neonatal mortality • Sexual violence during pregnancy increased the risk of outcome: aOR = 3.20 (1.09–9.33).
• Psychological and physical violence during pregnancy were not significantly associated.
  1. aOR adjusted odd ratio, HR hazard ratio. The range of aOR or HR in the parenthesis in the 95% CI of the aOR or HR