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Table 1 Characteristics of the 26 included studies

From: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes: a scoping review of the literature from low-and-middle income countries from 2016 - 2021

Design Number of studies
Prospective cohort 5 [27,28,29,30,31]
Cross sectional 13 [8, 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43]
Quasi – experimental study 1 [44]
Case control 1 [45]
Baseline data of a quasi – experimental study 1 [46]
Secondary analysis of data of a prospective cohort study 1 [47]
Mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) 1 [48]
Qualitative studies 3 [49,50,51]
Number of studies using quantitative method 23 [18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40]
Number of studies using qualitative method 4 [48,49,50,51]
Setting (among 23 studies using quantitative method)  
  Facility – based 14 [8, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36,37,38,39,40, 42, 47, 48]
  Community – based 9 [29, 31, 33, 35, 41, 43,44,45,46]
Sample size (among 23 studies using quantitative method)  
  180–500 9 [27, 28, 33, 36, 37, 39, 42, 44, 47]
  500–1,000 7 [8, 32, 34, 35, 40, 43, 48]
  1,000–1,400 6 [29,30,31, 38, 41, 43]
  4,680 1 [46]
Number of countries represented in this review 13
Locations of studies
  Eastern Africa Ethiopia [35, 37, 42, 43, 45, 46], Tanzania [38, 51], Uganda [49]
  Western Africa Nigeria [36, 48]
  Southern Africa South Africa [32]
  Southern Asia Iran [28, 34, 39], India [44]
  Southeastern Asia Vietnam [29, 31, 41, 50], Malaysia [40]
  Western Asia Jordan [33]
  Between Asia and Europe Turkey [27]
  Latin America Brazil [8, 30], Mexico [47]
Tools to detect IPV during pregnancy
  WHO’s domestic violence questionnaire 12 studies [28,29,30,31, 33, 35, 37,38,39, 42, 45, 50]
  Abuse Assessment Screen 2 studies [43, 44]
  Conflict Tactics Scale 1 study [36]
  Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) 1 study [8]
  Hurt, Insult, Threaten and Scream 1 study [46]
  Stressful Life Events Scale 1 study [47]
  Composite Abuse Scale - Short Form (CAS-SF) 1 study [32]
  Their own questionnaires 6 studies [27, 34, 40, 41, 48, 49]