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Table 3 Univariate Logistic Regression of Socio-demographic, Maternal, Pregnancy and Delivery care factors associated with home delivery, crude odds ratios and 95% CI (n = 4649)

From: Factors associated with home delivery in rural Sindh, Pakistan: results from the global network birth registry

Variable Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) P-value
Socio-demographic Factors
Maternal age (years)
  < 20 ref  
 20–35 1.37 (0.92, 2.04) 0.113
  > 35 2.29 (1.44,3.63)  < 0.001
Maternal Education
 Illiterate 2.17(1.77, 2.65)  < 0.001
 Literate ref  
Maternal Factors
BMI (kg/m2)
 18.5–23 ref  
  < 18.5 1.19 (1.02, 1.39) 0.025
  > 23 0.66 (0.56, 0.79)  < 0.001
Maternal Hemoglobin (gm/dl)
  < 8 1.34 (1.08, 1.67) 0.007
 8–10 1.37 (1.19, 1.58) 0.002
 10.1 and above ref  
Parity
 0 ref  
 1–2 1.49 (1.24, 1.78)  < 0.001
 3 and above 2.00 (1.68, 2.39)  < 0.001
Outcome of Last pregnancy
 Pregnancy Loss ref  
 live birth 1.68 (1.44, 1.97)  < 0.001
History of C-sections
 No 3.26 (2.39, 4.45) 0.002
 Yes ref  
Pregnancy and delivery care Factors
Received ANC during pregnancy
 No ANC 26.39 (18.87,36.71)  < 0.001
  < 4 visits 3.61 (3.09, 4.20)  < 0.001
 4 or more visits ref  
Maternal tetanus vaccination
 No 2.58 (2.26, 2.96)  < 0.001
 Yes ref  
Iron supplementation
 No 2.67 (2.33, 3.07)  < 0.001
 Yes ref  
Calcium supplementation
 No 3.01 (2.61, 3.47)  < 0.001
 Yes ref  
Gestational age at delivery(weeks)
  < 37 1.06 (0.89,1.24) 0.513
  > 37 ref  
Complications in pregnancy and after deliverya
 Yes ref  
 No 0.28(0.19,0.32)  < 0.001
Birth Outcome of recent pregnancyb
 Live birth ref  
 Not a live Birth 4.89(4.17,5.73)  < 0.001
Birth weight (gm)
 Normal Weight (≥ 2500) ref  
 Low birth weight (< 2500) 1.19(0.94,1.32) 0.2
  1. aObstructed labour/Prolonged labour/failure to Progress/antepartum hemorrhage/ postpartum hemorrhage/ hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and severe infection
  2. bNot a live birth includes stillbirths