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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Correlates of Canadian mothers’ anger during the postpartum period: a cross-sectional survey

Characteristic All Participants
N = 278
Mean, SD / n (%)
Anger Levela P-value
Less Intense
N = 193; n (%)
Intense
N = 85; n (%)
Age Range 23-44 years 32.6 ± 3.8 32.6 ± 3.7 32.7 ± 4.1 0.97
Infant age Range 6-12 months 8.6 ± 1.9 8.5 ± 2.0 8.7 ± 1.9 0.43
Infant sex Male 148 (53.4) 105 (54.4) 43 (50.6) 0.72
Partnered Yes 275 (98.9) 192 (99.5) 83 (97.6) 0.46
Parity Primiparous 149 (53.6) 1.5 (0.73) 1.8 (0.76) <0.01
Multiparous 128 (45.0)    
Unknown 1 (<1)    
Employment Yes 50 (18.0) 31 (16.1) 19 (22.4) 0.28
Immigrant Yes 41 (14.7) 33 (17.1) 8 (9.5) 0.14
Education Postgraduate 81 (29.1) 64 (33.2) 17 (20.0) <0.01
University 122 (43.9) 84 (43.5) 38 (44.7)  
College 62 (22.3) 41 (21.2) 21 (24.7)  
High School 13 (4.7) 4 (2.1) 9 (10.6)  
Household income >$110K 134 (48.2) 104 (53.9) 30 (35.3) 0.01
$90,000-109,999 60 (21.7) 37 (19.2) 23 (27.1)  
$60,000-89,999 60 (21.7) 40 (20.7) 20 (23.5)
<$60,000 23 (8.3) 11 (5.7) 12 (14.1)
Unknown 1 (<1)   
Anger (SAS) Range 15-53 24 ± 7.6 20.0 ± 3.5 33 ± 6.3 < 0.01
Depressive symptoms (EPDS) Range 0-21 9.3 ± 4.7 8.2 ± 4.4 11.8 ± 4.3 < 0.01
 EPDS score >12 Yes 73 (26.0) 34 (46.6) 39 (53.4) < 0.01
Sleep Quality (SQ) Range 1-4 2.6 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.6 < 0.01
 Poor sleep Yes 144 (52.0) 85 (44.0) 59 (69.4) < 0.01
Fatigue (MAF) Range 7-45 30.3 ± 8.5 28.5 ± 8.7 34 ± 6.4 < 0.01
Infant sleep problem (BISQ) Yes 194 (69.8) 122 (62.3) 72 (84.7) < 0.01
Maternal cognitions about infant sleep (MCISQ total) Range 5-69 34.9 ± 12.7 33 ± 12.7 39 ± 2.0 < 0.01
 Anger (subscale)   6.4 ± 3.9 5.5 ± 3.5 8.5 ± 4.0 < 0.01
 Limit Setting (subscale)   14.9 ± 6.0 14.7 ± 6.1 15.5 ± 5.6 0.26
 Doubts (subscale)   7.0 ± 4.5 6.5 ± 4.3 8.1 ± 4.6 < 0.01
 Safety (subscale)   3.2 ± 2.4  2.9 ± 2.4 3.6 ± 2.4 0.07
 Feeding (subscale)   6.5 ± 3.7  6.3 ± 3.8 7.0 ± 3.3 0.12
Family support total score (FSS) 44.8 (9.4) 44.8 ± 9.4 44.7 ± 9.4 45.0 ± 9.4 0.82
  1. aState Anger Scale raw score of 27 (90th percentile). Note: BISQ Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, FSS Family Support Scale, MAF Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, MCISQ Maternal Cognitions about Infant Sleep, SAS State Anger Scale, SQ Sleep Quality