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Table 3 Association between mediolateral episiotomy and the condition of infant at birth (pH umbilical artery < 7.10, 5-min Apgar score < 7) according to the type of operative vaginal delivery (2013–2017)

From: Mediolateral episiotomy and risk of obstetric anal sphincter injuries and adverse neonatal outcomes during operative vaginal delivery in nulliparous women: a propensity-score analysis

  Total number Mediolateral episiotomy No Mediolateral episiotomy RR (95% CI)
  n pH umbilical artery < 7.10
or 5-min Apgar score < 7,
n (%)
n pH umbilical artery < 7.10
or 5-min Apgar score < 7,
n (%)
Univariate
analysis *
Using IPTW *
Whole population 3586 966 55 (5.7) 2620 245 (9.4) 0.73 (0.54–1.00) 0.84 (0.70–1.01)
Forceps/spatula
delivery
1141 702 20 (4.5) 439 62 (8.8) 0.56 (0.32–0.98) 0.56 (0.39–0.81)
Vacuum delivery 2442 526 35 (6.6) 1916 183 (9.6) 0.84 (0.57–1.23) 0.97 (0.79–1.20)
  1. RR risk ratio, CIs confidence intervals, IPTW inverse probability of treatment weighting. * Mixed model after multiple imputation of missing data. Missing data – mode of operative vaginal deliveries: n = 3. Covariates used to estimate the propensity score: maternal age, smoking, Body mass index, gestational diabetes, hypertension disorders in pregnancy, induction of labour, epidural analgesia, occiput posterior position, prolonged pregnancy, fetal distress, type of instruments (forceps/ spatula delivery and vacuum delivery), small for gestational age year of delivery, and level of maternity unit