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Table 3 Associations of cholesterol from eggs and other foods per day with GDM

From: Dietary cholesterol and egg intake are associated with the risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective study from Southwest China

  Continuous variable (each additional 100 mg/d) Tertiles of cholesterol intake (mg/d) P for trend
Q1 Q2 Q3  
  OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI  
Cholesterol from eggs
 Median, mg/d 194.7 107.0 127.3 128.3  
 Model 1a 1.11 1.04-1.17 1.00 - 1.22 0.97-1.55 1.50 1.15-1.97 0.003
 Model 2b 1.09 1.03-1.17 1.00 - 1.14 0.90-1.46 1.43 1.08-1.90 0.019
Model 2 plus nutrients c
 Saturated fat, unsaturated fat 1.09 1.03-1.16 1.00 - 1.12 0.88-1.44 1.40 1.05-1.86 0.027
 Animal protein 1.10 1.03-1.17 1.00 - 1.14 0.89-1.47 1.42 1.07-1.90 0.022
 Fibre 1.09 1.03-1.16 1.00 - 1.14 0.89-1.45 1.42 1.07-1.88 0.021
 All previous nutrients 1.10 1.03-1.17 1.00 - 1.13 0.88-1.45 1.42 1.06-1.90 0.025
Cholesterol from other foods d
 Median, mg/d 121.0 51.0 121.0 216.0  
 Model 1a 1.02 0.93-1.13 1.00 - 1.34 1.04-1.73 1.30 1.00-1.59 0.047
 Model 2b 0.99 0.88-1.12 1.00 - 1.33 0.98-1.80 1.28 0.93-1.45 0.102
Model 2 plus nutrients c
 Saturated fat, unsaturated fat 0.96 0.85-1.09 1.00 - 1.26 0.92-1.72 1.23 0.88-1.40 0.240
 Animal protein 0.95 0.81-1.12 1.00 - 1.40 0.97-2.03 1.36 0.96-1.58 0.103
 Fibre 0.98 0.87-1.11 1.00 - 1.32 0.97-1.02 1.28 0.92-1.44 0.126
 All previous nutrients 0.93 0.79-1.10 1.00 - 1.34 0.92-1.94 1.31 0.90-1.54 0.181
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
  2. a Crude model
  3. b Adjusted for energy intake, age, prepregnancy BMI, education, income of family, parity, family history of diabetes, smoking before pregnancy, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, physical activity, dietary glycaemic load, weight gain from pregnancy to OGTT
  4. c Nutrients correlated with dietary cholesterol (saturated fat, unsaturated fat, trans fat, animal protein, and fibre) were adjusted individually or in combination in addition to Model 2 covariates.
  5. d Other foods included red meat, poultry, fish and shellfish, dairy products, animal organs and the others (except eggs)