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Table 1 Characteristics and dietary intake of participants according to quartile of total cholesterol intake

From: Dietary cholesterol and egg intake are associated with the risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective study from Southwest China

Characteristic Overall Quartile of total cholesterol intake (mg/d) P -value
Q1(≤186.0) Q2(186.1-332.0) Q3(332.1-464.0) Q4(>464.0)
N 1617 408 404 401 404  
Age, years (mean, SD) 28.6 4.1 28.0 3.8 28.5 3.9 29.0 4.4 28.9 4.1 0.001
Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m2 (mean, SD) 21.1 3.1 21.2 3.2 21.1 3.1 21.3 3.0 20.9 3.0 0.249
Parity (N, %)
 Primiparous 1157 71.6 290 71.1 286 70.8 293 73.1 288 71.3 0.890
 Multiparous 460 28.4 118 28.9 118 29.2 108 26.9 116 28.7  
Family history of diabetes (N, %) 162 10.0 40 9.8 40 9.9 41 10.2 41 10.1 0.997
Education (N, %)
 High school or lower 387 23.9 103 25.2 109 27.0 96 23.9 79 19.6 <0.001
 Junior college 590 36.5 175 42.9 135 33.4 146 36.4 134 33.2  
 University or higher 640 39.6 130 31.9 160 39.6 159 39.7 191 47.3  
Monthly income of the family per capita, yuan (N, %)
 ≤5000 535 33.1 147 36.0 125 30.9 134 33.4 129 31.9 0.215
 5000~9999 743 45.9 192 47.1 191 47.3 184 45.9 176 43.6  
 ≥10000 339 21.0 69 16.9 88 21.8 83 20.7 99 24.5  
Smoking before pregnancy (N, %) 61 3.8 17 4.2 10 2.5 12 3.0 22 5.5 0.119
Alcohol consumption before pregnancy (N, %) 131 8.1 34 8.3 23 5.7 28 7.0 46 11.4 0.021
WGPO, kg (mean, SD) 6.20 3.31 5.64 3.26 6.43 3.25 6.27 3.26 6.44 3.40 0.001
Physical activity, MET-h wk-1 (mean, SD) 106.8 46.4 105.3 48.8 108.7 49.0 105.8 41.9 107.4 45.5 0.710
Plasma TG, mmol/L (mean, SD) 1.32 0.50 1.30 0.47 1.31 0.45 1.36 0.52 1.30 0.57 0.257
Plasma TC, mmol/L (mean, SD) 4.14 0.64 4.05 0.66 4.13 0.61 4.17 0.63 4.21 0.67 0.002
Plasma LDL-C, mmol/L (mean, SD) 2.05 0.9 2.03 0.52 2.05 0.48 2.06 0.48 2.04 0.48 0.932
Plasma HDL-C, mmol/L (mean, SD) 1.67 0.34 1.60 0.34 1.66 0.34 1.68 0.32 1.75 0.35 <0.001
GDM (N, %) 571 35.3 118 28.9 146 36.1 151 37.7 156 38.6 0.016
Dietary intake
 Eggs, number/d (mean, SD) 0.71 0.58 0.12 0.21 0.49 0.29 0.89 0.31 1.34 0.56 <0.001
 Red meats, g/d (mean, SD) 59.5 50.5 39.3 39.0 59.5 41.7 61.0 51.1 78.3 59.7 <0.001
 Poultry, g/d (mean, SD) 12.5 29.2 6.3 17.7 11.2 22.4 13.5 29.2 19.3 40.8 <0.001
 Fish/shellfish, g/d (mean, SD) 18.6 41.8 6.9 19.3 14.1 33.5 17.6 41.6 35.8 57.8 <0.001
 Total dairy products, g/d (mean, SD) 138.5 132.8 93.8 116.2 132.6 129.5 149.4 124.7 178.7 145.0 <0.001
 Animal organs, g/d (mean, SD) 5.4 17.3 3.2 14.8 4.6 11.5 4.5 13.6 9.1 25.4 <0.001
 Dietary glycaemic load, g/d (mean, SD) 153.3 59.4 147.3 58.7 152.7 53.6 158.4 67.6 154.8 56.7 0.061
 Energy intake, kcal/d (mean, SD) 1848.1 530.5 1600.1 486.6 1819.1 510.2 1901.2 475.4 2074.9 535.9 <0.001
 Saturated fat, unsaturated fat, g/d (mean, SD) 68.8 24.8 53.0 19.1 66.6 23.5 72.0 20.3 83.6 25.6 <0.001
 Animal protein, g/d (mean, SD) 25.4 15.4 12.8 8.2 22.7 10.4 27.3 12.2 39.1 16.4 <0.001
 Fibre, g/d (mean, SD) 12.9 6.3 11.9 6.5 12.9 6.7 13.0 5.8 13.7 5.9 <0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, WGPO Weight gain from pregnancy to OGTT, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, MET metabolic equivalent