Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient Demographics, Pregnancy Characteristics, and Leptin Levels

From: Association between plasma leptin and cesarean section after induction of labor: a case control study

Variable Successful IOL
(vaginal delivery)
N = 115
Failed IOL
(Cesarean section delivery)
N = 59
P Value
Maternal Age at Delivery (mean years, 95% CI) 29.6 (28.6–30.6) 29.9 (28.6–31.2) 0.7
Race: White 87.8% (101) 93.2% (55) 0.7
Race: Black 2.6% (3) 1.7% (1) 0.7
Race: Asian 3.5% (4) 1.7% (1) 0.7
Race: Hispanic 1.7% (2) 0% (0) 0.7
Race: American Indian 0% (0) 1.7% (1) 0.7
Race: Unspecified 3% (3) 1.7% (1) 0.7
Race: Multiracial 1.7% (2) 0% (0)  
BMI (mean kg/m2, 95% CI) 27.4 (26.2–28.6) 32.2 (29.9–40.0) 0.0002
GA at IOL (mean weeks, 95% CI) 39.8 (39.6–40.0) 39.5 (39.2–39.8) 0.2
Bishop Score (mean, 95% CI) 4.6 (4.1–5.1) 2.6 (2.1–3.1) < 0.001
Parity (mean, 95% CI) 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.3 (0.1–0.5) < 0.001
Epidural/Spinal (%, N) 84.3% (97) 83.1% (49) 0.9
Weight Gain (mean kg, 95% CI) 12.7 (11.5–13.9) 13.0 (11.4–14.6) 0.8
Induction Method
 Cervidil (dinoprostone) (%, N) 28.6% (33) 64.4% (38) < 0.001
 Cytotec (misoprostol) (%, N) 30.4% (35) 44.1% (26) 0.1
 Pitocin (%, N) 86.1% (99) 91.5% (54) 0.5
 Foley Bulb (%, N) 11.3% (13) 27.1% (16) 0.03
 AROM (%, N) 55.6% (64) 50.8% (30) 0.7
 Nipple Stimulation (%, N) 0.87% (1) 0% 0.7
 Multiple IOL Methods (%, N) 73.9% (85) 93.2% (55) 0.008
Indication for IOL
 IOL PET (%, N) 1.7% (2) 13.5% (8) 0.008
 IOL AMA (%, N) 11.3% (13) 18.6% (11) 0.2
 IOL Fetal Indication (%, N) 18.2% (21) 13.5% (8) 0.5
 IOL GDM (%, N) 7.8% (9) 3.4% (2) 0.5
 IOL DM I (%, N) 0.87% (1) 6.8% (4) 0.2
 IOL DM II (%, N) 0% (0) 1.7% (1) 0.7
 IOL CHTN (%, N) 11.3% (13) 15.2% (9) 0.6
 IOL gHTN (%, N) 8.6% (10) 3.4% (2) 0.4
 IOL Postdates (%, N) 28.6% (33) 30.5% (18) 0.9
 IOL PROM (%, N) 6.1% (7) 6.8% (4) 0.8
 IOL Elective (%, N) 25.2% (29) 8.5% (5) 0.03
 IOL Multiple Indications (%, N) 19.1% (22) 18.6% (11) 0.9
Antepartum/Intrapartum Complications
 No Pregnancy Complications (%, N) 45.2% (52) 30.5% (18) 0.06
 CHTN (%, N) 11.3% (13) 15.2% (9) 0.06
 gHTN (%, N) 8.6% (10) 3.4% (2) 0.4
 Preeclampsia (%, N) 1.7% (2) 13.5% (8) 0.008
 DM I (%, N) 0.8% (1) 6.7% (4) 0.07
 DM II (%, N) 0% (0) 1.7% (1) 0.2
 GDM A1 (%, N) 4.3% (5) 3.4% (2) 0.7
 GDM A2 (%, N) 6.1% (7) 3.4% (2) 0.7
 Alloimmunization (%, N) 0.8% (1) 1.7% (1) 0.8
 IUGR (%, N) 1.7% (2) 0% (0) 0.8
 Oligohydramnios (%, N) 7.8% (9) 1.7% (1) 0.2
 Cerclage (%, N) 2.6% (3) 1.7% (1) 0.8
 Hypothyroid (%, N) 11.3% (13) 8.5% (5) 0.9
 AMA (%, N) 12.2% (14) 18.6% (11) 0.4
 History of Cesarean Section (%, N) 4.3% (5) 1.7% (1) 0.7
 VBAC (%, N) 1.7% (2) 0% (0) 0.8
 Operative Vaginal Delivery (%, N) 14.8% (17) 0% (0) 0.007
 Meconium (%, N) 13.0% (15) 35.6% (21) 0.002
 Chorioamnionitis (%, N) 7.8% (9) 13.6% (8) 0.4
 Gestational age at sample collection 39 5/7 weeks 38 5/7 weeks 0.26
 Leptin (pg/ug) 0.3 (0.3–0.4) 0.5 (0.4–0.7) 0.01
  1. BMI body mass index, GA gestational age, IOL induction of labor, AROM artificial rupture of membranes, AMA advanced maternal age (>/= 35 years), GDM gestational onset diabetes, DM I type I diabetes mellitus, DM II type II diabetes mellitus, CHTN chronic hypertension, gHTN gestational hypertension, PROM premature rupture of membranes, GDM A1 gestational onset diabetes mellitus type I, GDM A2 gestational onset diabetes mellitus type II, IUGR intrauterine growth restriction, VBAC vaginal birth after Cesarean
  2. Data are presented as mean with 95% confidence interval or percentage with N. Categorical variables were compared using Chi square. Continuous variables were analyzed using t-Test or ANOVA. α = 0.05