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Table 2 Force (kg) and time (s) measurements for digital ‘push-up’, Fetal Pillow and Tydeman Tube at mild, moderate and severe levels of fetal head impaction

From: A comparison of technicques to disimpact the fetal head on a second stage caesearean simulator

  Device Force (kg): median (IQR) Time (s): Median (IQR)
  Overall p-value   p-value
Control Digital 10.0 (8.0 – 11.5) 7.0 (5.0 – 11.5)
1 Tydeman Tube 13.0 (8.8 – 13) <0.001 6.0 (4.3 – 7.8) 0.110
2 Fetal Pillow 8.7 (6.0 – 11.0) 0.10 7.0 (5.0 – 12.0) 0.619
   Mild
Control Digital 8.0 (6.0 – 8.0) 6.0 (4.0 – 9.0)
1 Tydeman Tube 8.0 (8.0 – 9.0) 0.1 5.0 (4.0 – 7.0) 0.529
2 Fetal Pillow 6.0 (6.0 – 7.0) 0.20 6.0 (4.0 – 7.0) 0.467
   Moderate
Control Digital 9.4 (8.7 – 12.0) 6.5 (9.0 – 8.25)
1 Tydeman Tube 13.0 (13.0 – 14.0) <0.001 6.0 (4.5 – 8.0) 0.575
2 Fetal Pillow 8.7 (8.7 – 8.7) 0.128 8.0 (5.0 – 11.0) 0.331
   Severe
Control Digital 11 (11.0 – 13.0) 9.0 (6.3 – 15.0)
1 Tydeman Tube 15.0 (13.0 – 17.0) <0.01 8.5 (6.3 – 25.0) 0.03
2 Fetal Pillow 11.0 (11.0 – 11.0) 0.28 15.0 (6.5 – 22.5) 0.642