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Table 3 Fixed and random effects results on the association between adolescent childbearing and skilled birth attendance

From: Early age at first childbirth and skilled birth attendance during delivery among young women in sub-Saharan Africa

Variables Null model Model I
AOR[95%CI]
Model II
AOR[95%CI]
Model III
AOR[95%CI]
Model IV
AOR[95%CI]
Age at first birth
  < 20 years   1    1
 20-24 years   2.69*** (2.55-2.84)    2.37*** (2.23-2.52)
Level of education
 No education    0.37*** (0.34-0.39)   0.50*** (0.47-0.54)
 Primary    0.67*** (0.63-0.70)   0.85*** (0.80-0.90)
 Secondary +    1   1
Marital status
 Not married    0.85*** (0.79-0.91)   0.91** (0.84-0.98)
 Married    1   1
 Cohabiting    1.17*** (1.10-1.25)   1.31*** (1.22-1.40)
 Widowed    0.64*** (0.49-0.82)   0.68** (0.52-0.88)
 Divorced/separated    0.82*** (0.75-0.89)   0.91* (0.83-0.99)
Parity
 One birth    1   1
 Two births    0.91*** (0.87-0.96)   1.25*** (1.19-1.32)
 Three births    0.76*** (0.72-0.81)   1.19*** (1.11-1.27)
 Four or more births    0.59*** (0.54-0.64)   0.98 (0.90-1.07)
Mass media exposure
 No    0.72*** (0.69-0.75)   0.96 (0.91-1.00)
 Yes    1   1
Religion
 Christianity    1   1
 Islam    0.69*** (0.65-0.72)   0.58*** (0.55-0.618)
 Others    0.64*** (0.58-0.71)   0.64*** (0.58-0.71)
Wealth index
 Poorest     0.73*** (0.69-0.77) 0.78*** (0.74-0.83)
 Poorer     1 1
 Middle     1.12*** (1.05-1.19) 1.10** (1.03-1.17)
 Richer     1.22*** (1.13-1.31) 1.20*** (1.12-1.30)
 Richest     1.37*** (1.24-1.51) 1.33*** (1.20-1.48)
Sex of head of household
 Male     1 1
 Female     0.91*** (0.87-0.96) 0.91*** (0.86-0.96)
Community literacy level
 Low     1 1
 Medium     1.54*** (1.47-1.62) 1.21*** (1.15-1.28)
 High     1.77*** (1.65-1.90) 1.21*** (1.12-1.31)
Community socioeconomic level
 Low     1 1
 Medium     1.39*** (1.31-1.48) 1.43*** (1.34-1.53)
 High     1.28*** (1.15-1.40) 1.39*** (1.28-1.52)
Place of residence
 Urban     1.23*** (1.15-1.31) 1.18*** (1.11-1.26)
 Rural     1 1
Sub-region
 West Africa     0.69*** (0.64-0.70) 1.17*** (1.10-1.25)
 East Africa     1 1
 Central Africa     0.60*** (0.56-0.63) 0.69*** (0.64-0.73)
 South Africa     1.58*** (1.38-1.82) 1.28*** (1.11-1.47)
Random effect result
 PSU variance (95% CI) 0.14 (0.11-0.17) 0.14 (0.12-0.18) 0.20 (0.16-0.25) 0.15 (0.12-0.19) 0.21 (0.16-0.27)
 ICC 0.040297 0.0420914 0.0565033 0.044011 0.0601468
 LR Test Chi-square = 281.90, p < 0.001 Chi-square = 281.97, p < 0.001 Chi-square = 293.22, p < 0.001 Chi-square = 244.75, p < 0.001 Chi-square = 259.45, p < 0.001
 Wald chi-square   1339.03*** 3268.46*** 2971.7*** 4802.36***
 Model fitness
  Log-likelihood −30,023.153 −29,255.109 −28,252.061 −28,650.877 −27,116.869
  AIC 60,050.31 58,516.22 56,532.12 56,803.06 54,289.74
  N 52,875 52,875 52,875 52,875 52,875
  Number of clusters 1580 1580 1580 1580 1580
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001