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Table 4 Multiple regression predicting maternal-fetal bonding based on mental health history, symptoms, psychosocial factors, and COVID-19-related worries

From: Maternal-fetal bonding during the COVID-19 pandemic

Total score

Blocks of variables entered in four steps

β

R2

ΔR2

1. Covariates

 

0.076

0.076***

 Maternal age (years)

−0.051

  

 Gestational age of fetus (weeks)

0.114**

  

Maternal race

  (ref = White)

   

  Black

0.048

  

  Hispanic

0.082*

  

  Asian

−0.060

  

Maternal education

  (ref = less than college)

   

  College

−0.193**

  

  Masters

−0.238**

  

  Doctorate

−0.217**

  

Maternal income

  (ref = <$74,999)

   

  $75,000-149,999

−0.068

  

  $150,000-224,999

−0.057

  

  ≥$225,000

−0.122*

  

  First pregnancy (ref = no)

0.169***

  

Pandemic duration

0.009

  

2. Mental Health History

 

0.077

0.003

 Prior Depression Diagnosis (ref = no)

0.053

  

 Prior Generalized Anxiety Diagnosis (ref = no)

−0.037

  

3. Mental Health Symptoms

 

0.14

0.064***

 Depression

−0.297***

  

 Generalized anxiety

0.140*

  

4. Psychosocial factors

 

0.164

0.028***

 Life Events

0.011

  

 Resilience (CD-RISC)

0.175***

  

 Distress Tolerance (DTS)

0.031

  

5. COVID-19-Related Worries

 

0.185

0.024***

 Health

0.160**

  

 Pregnancy

0.063

  

 Access to resources

−0.083

  
  1. N = 686, †p < 0.1, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001