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Table 4 Multiple regression predicting maternal-fetal bonding based on mental health history, symptoms, psychosocial factors, and COVID-19-related worries

From: Maternal-fetal bonding during the COVID-19 pandemic

Total score
Blocks of variables entered in four steps β R2 ΔR2
1. Covariates   0.076 0.076***
 Maternal age (years) −0.051   
 Gestational age of fetus (weeks) 0.114**   
Maternal race
  (ref = White)    
  Black 0.048   
  Hispanic 0.082*   
  Asian −0.060   
Maternal education
  (ref = less than college)    
  College −0.193**   
  Masters −0.238**   
  Doctorate −0.217**   
Maternal income
  (ref = <$74,999)    
  $75,000-149,999 −0.068   
  $150,000-224,999 −0.057   
  ≥$225,000 −0.122*   
  First pregnancy (ref = no) 0.169***   
Pandemic duration 0.009   
2. Mental Health History   0.077 0.003
 Prior Depression Diagnosis (ref = no) 0.053   
 Prior Generalized Anxiety Diagnosis (ref = no) −0.037   
3. Mental Health Symptoms   0.14 0.064***
 Depression −0.297***   
 Generalized anxiety 0.140*   
4. Psychosocial factors   0.164 0.028***
 Life Events 0.011   
 Resilience (CD-RISC) 0.175***   
 Distress Tolerance (DTS) 0.031   
5. COVID-19-Related Worries   0.185 0.024***
 Health 0.160**   
 Pregnancy 0.063   
 Access to resources −0.083   
  1. N = 686, †p < 0.1, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001