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Table 2 Relationship between infant crying problems and maternal depressive symptoms

From: Infant crying problems related to maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

  Mothers of infants with crying problems Mothers of infants without crying problems Chi-sq test Unadjusted Adjusted for socioeconomics Adjusted for chronic diseases Adjusted for previous psychological difficulties Adjusted for all blocks
N = 235 N = 1055
MDI score N (%) N (%) P-value OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI] OR [95%CI]
First trimester      0.065           
 0–20 188 (80.0) 905 (85.8)   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
 21–25 23 (9.8) 68 (6.5)   1.628 [0.989; 2.680] 1.694 [1.002; 2.865] 1.652 [0.987; 2.763] 1.505 [0.908; 2.495] 1.580 [0.913; 2.734]
 26–30 11 (4.7) 50 (4.7)   1.059 [0.541; 2.072] 1.119 [0.546; 2.294] 0.991 [0.487; 2.020] 0.965 [0.490; 1.902] 0.941 [0.437; 2.028]
>  31 13 (5.5) 32 (5.5)   1.956 [1.007; 3.797] 1.981 [0.995; 3.947] 1.970 [1.008; 3.853] 1.718 [0.875; 3.374] 1.687 [0.829; 3.433]
Second trimester      0.330           
 0–20 195 (83.0) 917 (86.9)   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
 21–25 15 (6.4) 61 (5.8)   1.156 [0.644; 2.077] 1.288 [0.698; 2.377] 1.152 [0.627; 2.116] 1.105 [0.613; 1.991] 1.203 [0.637; 2.270]
 26–30 13 (5.5) 44 (4.2)   1.389 [0.734; 2.629] 1.450 [0.750; 2.804] 1.412 [0.739; 2.699] 1.269 [0.666; 2.420] 1.366 [0.693; 2.691]
>  31 12 (5.1) 33 (3.1)   1.710 [0.868; 3.371] 1.850 [0.911; 3.758] 1.682 [0.826; 3.428] 1.490 [0.747; 2.975] 1.539 [0.729; 3.248]
Third trimester      0.002           
 0–20 205 (87.2) 965 (91.5)   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
 21–25 13 (5.5) 52 (4.9)   1.177 [0.629; 2.201] 1.198 [0.628; 2.284] 1.248 [0.662, 2.351] 1.064 [0.564; 2.006] 1.132 [0.585; 2.192]
 26–30 6 (2.6) 27 (2.6)   1.046 [0.426; 2.566] 1.005 [0.400; 2.528] 1.124 [0.452; 2.793] 0.871 [0.347; 2.181] 0.920 [0.354; 2.392]
>  31 11 (4.7) 11 (4.7)   4.707 [2.014;11.005] 5.805 [2.405;14.010] 4.938 [2.013;12.115] 4.155 [1.760; 9.808] 5.476 [2.157; 13.901]
Postpartum      0.001           
 0–20 210 (89.4) 1008 (95.6)   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
 21–25 14 (6.0) 20 (1.9)   3.360 [1.670; 6.759] 2.954 [1.415; 6.163] 3.301 [1.602; 6.801] 3.031 [1.492; 6.156] 2.822 [1.320; 6.032]
 26–30 7 (3.0) 19 (1.8)   1.768 [0.734; 4.260] 1.817 [0.734; 4.502] 1.917 [0.786; 4.675] 1.546 [0.635; 3.765] 1.728 [0.681; 4.383]
>  31 4 (1.7) 8 (0.8)   2.400 [0.716; 8.044] 3.796 [1.045;13.788] 2.807 [0.802; 9.831] 2.136 [0.632; 7.220] 4.562 [1.172; 17.758]
  1. The table shows correlations between infant crying problems and maternal MDI scores, unadjusted, adjusted for socioeconomics, chronic diseases, and previous psychological difficulties. Data were collected three times during pregnancy and once postpartum