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Table 4 Bivariable and multivariable regression analysis of demographic, health, and psychometric variables as predictors of antenatal depression (as measured by EPDS). Bivariable and multivariable logistic and linear regression (Odds Ratio, 95% CI)a

From: Predictors and occurrence of antenatal depressive symptoms in Galle, Sri Lanka: a mixed-methods cross-sectional study

  Bivariable Model 1: Demographicb Model 2:
Demographicb + Health
Model 3:
Demographicb
+ Health
+ Psychometric
Demographic and socio-economic
Age
  ≤25 1.43(0.48,4.29) 1.07(0.32,3.54) 1.31(0.38,4.76) 2.02(0.49,8.38)
  26 – 30 1 1 1 1
  ≥31 3.88(1.71,9.97) 3.15(1.31,8.53) 2.65(1.05,7.35) 1.65(0.56,5.32)
Trimester
  1 1 1 1 1
  2 0.48(0.17,1.60) 0.63(0.20,2.24) 0.58(0.18,2.11) 0.43(0.11,1.95)
  3 1.05(0.41,3.26) 0.91(0.46,4.48) 1.24(0.42,4.28) 1.07(0.31,4.44)
Parity
  Primiparous 0.29(0.12,0.64) 0.43(0.15,1.07) 0.41(0.14,1.14) 0.20(0.05,0.74)
  Multiparous 1 1 1 1
Employment
  Outside work 0.33(0.13,0.72) 0.38(0.13,0.98) 0.40(0.13,1.06) 0.45(0.13,1.39)
  Housewife 1 1 1 1
Religion/Ethnicity
  Buddhist Sinhala 1 1 1 1
  Other 0.91(0.38,1.95) 0.72(0.26,1.81) 0.70(0.25,1.80) 0.75(0.22,2.29)
Education
  Primary or below 4.28(0.66,34.28) 2.11(0.22,23.5) 2.86(0.29,33.69) 0.29(0.02,5.37)
  Junior Secondary 3.14(0.90,19.86) 1.12(0.22,8.58) 1.28(0.24,10.11) 0.55(0.09,5.02)
  Senior Secondary 1.40(0.34,9.45) 0.53(0.10,4.14) 0.64(0.12,5.19) 0.40(0.06,3.46)
  College or Above 1 1 1 1
Social class
  Highest 0.52(0.15,1.66) 0.60(0.15,2.32) 0.66(0.15,2.73) 0.57(0.09,3.26)
  Higher 0.17(0.04,0.56) 0.27(0.06,1.14) 0.33(0.07,1.49) 0.48(0.08,2.94)
  Lower 0.86(0.37,2.16) 0.91(0.33,2.82) 1.02(0.35,3.35) 1.09(0.30,4.71)
  Lowest 1 1 1 1
Health
Subfertility
  Yes 1.50(0.43,4.04)   1.78(0.43,5.87) 1.70(0.35,6.56)
  No 1   1 1
Diabetes mellitus
  Yes 3.99(1.50,9.56)   1.81(0.58,5.23) 1.72(0.44,6.21)
  No 1   1 1
History of LBW baby
  Yes 2.55(0.91,6.18)   1.10(0.35,3.06) 1.56(0.42,5.21)
  No 1   1 1
History of abortion
  Yes 1.73(0.67,3.91)   1.03(0.35,2.70) 0.84(0.24,2.61)
  No 1   1 1
BMI
  Low BMI 0.72(0.28,1.67)   0.82(0.29,2.14) 0.62(0.17,1.97)
  Normal BMI 1   1 1
  High BMI 1.67(0.72,3.62)   1.19(0.47,2.83) 1.66(0.56,4.71)
History of pre-eclampsia     
  Yes 3.32(1.17,8.21)   1.96(0.60,5.76) 2.67(0.58,10.54)
  No 1   1 1
Psychometric
Anxiety total 1.13(1.07,1.20)    
Delivery 1.12(1.02,1.22)    1.28(0.98,1.30)
Baby’s health 1.48(1.29,1.71)    1.14(0.92,1.41)
Appearance 1.09(0.93,1.24)    0.94(0.72,1.16)
Social support total 0.91(0.89,0.93)    
Family 0.79(0.74,0.85)    0.94(0.92,1.02)
Friends 0.93(0.89,0.96)    1.13(0.83,1.06)
Special person 0.83(0.79,0.87)    0.94(0.77,0.95)
  1. a Bolded values indicate statistical significance with 95% confidence interval (CI)
  2. b Demographic and socioeconomic factors