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Table 2 Maternal and fetal variables and their association with mode of delivery in induction of labour in multiparous and nulliparous women

From: Clinical predictive factors for vaginal delivery following induction of labour among pregnant women in Jordan

Variables Multiparous (N = 276) Nulliparous (N = 254)
Frequency VD (%) CS (%) p-value a Frequency VD (%) CS (%) p-value a
Previous miscarriage 116 93 (80.2) 23 (19.8) 0.43 40 15 (37.5) 25 (62.5) 0.59
Previous preterm delivery 14 13 (92.9) 1 (7.1) 0.29 NA
Previous IOL 125 103 (82.4) 22 (17.6) 0.83 NA
Rupture (confirmed) of the membranes at time of induction
• All cases with ruptured membranes 18 17 (94.4) 1 (5.6) 0.16 30 15 (50) 15 (50) 0.31
• PROM 14 14 (100) 0 (0) 0.08 19 11 (57.9) 8 (42.1) 0.22
• PPROM 4 3 (75) 1 (25) 0.77 11 4 (36.4) 7 (63.6) 0.22
Membranes sweeping in the last 7 days 67 55 (82.1) 12 (17.9) 0.87 41 20 (48.8) 21 (51.2) 0.26
Method of induction used
• Propess 45 36 (80) 9 (20) 0.10 22 11 (50) 11 (50) 0.33
• PGE2 tablet 230 191 (83) 39 (17) 231 93 (40.3) 138 (59.7)
• Propess + PGE2 table 1 0 (0) 1 (100) 1 1 (100) 0 (0)
Blood group
• A 101 84 (83.2) 17 (16.8) 0.51 99 35 (35.4) 64 (64.6) 0.33
• AB 18 17 (94.4) 1 (5.6) 14 9 (64.3) 5 (35.7)
• B 47 38 (80.9) 9 (19.1) 43 20 (46.5) 23 (53.5)
• O 110 88 (80.0) 22 (20.0) 98 41 (41.8) 57 (58.2)
Indication for IOL
• Postdate 64 54 (84.4) 10 (15.6) 0.32 60 25 (41.7) 35 (58.3) 0.51c
• Rupture of membranes (confirmed & suspected) 52 46 (88.5) 6 (11.5) 60 27 (45.0) 33 (55.0)
• Reduced liquor 35 30 (85.7) 5 (14.3) 42 15 (35.7) 27 (64.3)
• Reduced fetal movement 37 27 (73.0) 10 (27.0) 35 13 (37.1) 22 (62.9)
• SGA / IUGR 13 8 (61.5) 5 (38.5) 17 8 (47.1) 9 (52.9)
• Hypertension 14 12 (85.7) 2 (14.3) 14 8 (57.1) 6 (42.9)
• Thrombophilia 13 11 (84.6) 2 (15.4) 5 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0)
• GDM / DM 19 14 (73.7) 5 (26.3) 12 4 (33.3) 8 (66.7)
• Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy 6 6 (100) 0 (0) 6 0 (0) 6 (100)
• Antepartum haemorrhage 3 3 (100) 0 (0) 1 1 (100) 0 (0)
• Others (e.g., maternal request, unstable lie, etc.) 20 16 (80) 4 (20) 2 1 (50) 1 (50)
Neonate gender
• Male 131 110 (84) 21 (16) 0.55 115 46 (40.0) 69 (60.0) 0.59
• Female 145 117 (80.7) 28 (19.3) 139 58 (42.4) 80 (57.6)
Variables Mean ± SE
VD CS p- valueb VD CS p- valueb
Age (years) 32 ± 0.33 33.3 ± 0.85 0.15 25.53 ± 0.38 26.23 ± 0.32 0.17
Bishop score 3.97 ± 0.07 3.59 ± 0.16 0.033 3.47 ± 0.12 3.06 ± 0.10 0.01
Interval between last pregnancy and current pregnancy (months) 40.07 ± 1.77 50.57 ± 5.72 0.09 NA
Hemoglobin at time of IOL (g/dl) 11.06 ± 0.08 11.05 ± 0.17 0.93 11.5 ± 0.127 11.7 ± 0.08 0.19
Mother height (cm) 162.40 ± 0.35 162.86 ± 0.76 0.67 161.80 ± 0.57 161.9 ± 0.52 0.87
Mother weight at time of IOL (kg) 79.7 ± 0.75 86.04 ± 2.24 0.01 77.85 ± 1.3 78.7 ± 1.1 0.61
Mother BMI at time of IOL (kg/m2) 30.2 ± 0.28 32.36 ± 0.73 0.009 29.68 ± 0.45 30.02 ± 0.38 0.56
Gestational age of the fetus (weeks) 40.48 ± 1.6 38.67 ± 0.25 0.60 38.94 ± 0.16 38.56 ± 0.15 0.09
Neonate weight (kg) 3.17 ± 0.03 3.16 ± 0.08 0.96 3.07 ± 0.04 3.02 ± 0.04 0.35
  1. VD: vaginal delivery; CS: cesarean section; IOL: induction of labour; PGE2: prostaglandin E2; SGA: small for gestational age; IUGR: intrauterine growth restriction; GDM: gestational diabetes; DM: diabetes mellitus; SE: standard error of the mean.
  2. a Two-sided p-value based on univariate analysis – Chi-square and t-test
  3. b Two-sided p-value based on univariate analysis – simple linear regression
  4. c p-value = 0.036 for nulliparous women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy