Skip to main content

Table 2 Nutrition knowledge, perceptions and dietary intake at baseline and at study end-point

From: Enhancing nutrition knowledge and dietary diversity among rural pregnant women in Malawi: a randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Baseline Study end-point
Control (n = 78) Intervention (n = 68) p-value Control (n = 78) Intervention (n = 68) p-valuea
Knowledge of SFG (% yes)
 Staple 23.3 25.0 0.78 38.3 61.7  < 0.01
 Animal Food 23.3 32.6 0.14 37.1 62.9  < 0.01
 Vegetables 29.1 41.3 0.08 40.5 59.5  < 0.01
 Legumes 21.4 26.7 0.43 38.1 61.9  < 0.01
 Fruits 21.4 27.5 0.32 38.6 61.4  < 0.01
 Fats 18.4 23.9 0.35 43.0 66.0  < 0.01
SFG knowledge scores
 Mean (IQR) nutrition knowledge scores 0 (0–2) 0 (0–4) 0.52 3 (0–5) 6 (3–6)  < 0.01
 Low scores (%) 82.5 73.6 0.28 62.1 26.4  < 0.01
 Moderate scores (%) 5.8 11.0   14.6 15.4  
 High score (%) 11.7 15.4   23.6 58.4  
Nutrition perceptions (%)
 Know that pregnant women have high risk for malnutrition 80.6 80.4 0.87 81.6 91.3 0.05
 Perceptions of not being at-risk for malnutrition 26.2 28.3 0.75 23.2 9.8  < 0.01
Median (IQR) dietary diversity scores
 SFG 4 (3–5) 4 (3–6) 0.35 5 (4–5) 5 (4–6)  < 0.01
 MDD-W score 5 (4–5) 5 (4–7) 0.19 6 (5–6) 7 (5–8)  < 0.01
Nutrition behaviour (% yes)
 Consumption of diversified foods frequently 26.2 25.0 .87 43.7 62.6  < 0.01
 Missing main meals less frequently 29.1 28.3 0.89 55.3 78.3  < 0.01
 Taking healthy drinks and snacks frequently 15.8 19.1 0.55 24.5 42.9  < 0.01
 Eating whole grain frequently 21.4 22.8 0.81 65.7 90.1  < 0.01
  1. aThe p-values relate to the differences between the two study groups The n varies due to missing/incomplete data
  2. IQR Interquartile range, SFG Six Food Group, MDD-W Minimum dietary diversity for woman